DNB Anaesthesia QUESTION PAPERS TOPIC WISE

DNB Anaesthesia QUESTION PAPERS TOPIC WISE
                   SECTION I-II
1){1-10}Introduction
INFORMED CONSENT
1.Informed consent(Dec 2000)(June 2010).
2.Describe consent in anaesthesia practice including ethical and legal aspects(Dec 2010)
3.What are the ingredients of professional negligence?write a note on onformed consent.(Dec 2012)
1.Vicarious liability for negligence(June 1994).
2.Utility of anaesthetic records(Dec 1994).
3.Effect of anaesthesia and surgery on immunological mechanism(June 1995).
4.Safe anaesthetic procedure(Dec 1999).[Pg 87-ISACON 2008]
5.Simulator in anaesthesia education(June 1997).[Pg 49-ISACON 2009]
-Simulators in anaesthesia training(June 2010).
6.Computer based patient record for anaesthesia(Dec 1997).
7.Stress management in anaesthesia practice(Dec 2003).
-Stress and anaesthesiologists(June 2003)(June 2005).
8.Ethics in anaesthesia(June 2004).
-Write briefly on research ethics(Dec 2008).
9.Stress response to trauma and surgery(June 2006).
10.Evidence Based Medical education(June 2008).
-Discuss the role of EBM in anaesthesia practice.Quote few examples(June 2009).
11.Communication skill and anaesthesiologist(June 2010).
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11)Sleep,Memory and Consciousness
1.Write down the physiology of sleep.How does it differ from anaesthesia?What phases occur during various stages of anaesthesia?(June 1999).
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12)ANS
1.Clinical tests for evaluation of autonomic nervous system(June 2008).[Pg 295-Miller 7th ed]
2.A 50 year old male and known diabetic is scheduled for upper abdominal surgery.How will you evaluate the ANS?(Dec 2009).
3.How is autonomic neuropathy evaluated preoperatively?What is its significance in anaesthesia?(June 2012).
4.What is significance of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus?How can it be assessed?(Dec 2012)
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13)CNS Physiology
1.Regulation of CBF(Dec 2001).
-Discuss the regulation of CBF(June 2008).
2.Regulation of ICP(June 2001)
3.ICP(Dec 2003).
4.How is CBF regulated?What is the effect of various anaesthetic drugs on CBF?(June 2009).
-Enumerate the factors regulating CBF and the effect of various anaesthetic drugs on CBF(June 2010)[Pg25-RACE 2008]
5.What is cerebral autoregulation?Discuss the implications of various inhalational anaesthetic agents on cerebral auroregulation(June 2011).[Pg 615,6,619-Morgan 4rth ed]
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14)Neuromuscular Physiology and Pharmacology
1.Neuromuscular transmission(Dec 1999).[Pg 93-RACE 2012]
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15)Respiratory Physiology.
ODC
1.oxygen dissociation curve(Dec 1996).
2.Oxygen cascade,oxygen transport and Oxygen Dissociation Curve(June 2005).
3.Describe the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve.How does it differ from the carbon dioxide dissociation curve?(Dec 2011).
FRC
1.FRC(Dec 1998).
2.Define FRC.What is its significance in  anaesthesia?(Dec 2008).
3.Define FRC and closing volume.Describe their clinical significance(Jun 2011).
ANATOMY OF LARYNX
1.Tracheo-bronchial tree with diagram(June 1999).[Pg 2 –Ajay yadav]
2.Discuss the anatomy of diaphragm with a diagram.How does it behave under different stages of anaesthesia(June 1999).[Pg 49-RACE 2003,Pg 553-Morgan]
3.Anatomy of larynx.Enumerate with diagrams the types of vocal cord palsies(June 2005).
4.Describe the anatomy of larynx and its innervations.What are the differences between neonatal and adult larynx?(June 2012).
5.Describe the innervations of larynx and the palsises following nerve in jury with the help of diagram(s)(Dec 2012)
1.Closing volume of the lung and its measurement(June 1997).
2.Lung compliance(June 2006).
3.Discuss the distribution of ventilation and perfusion in a normal lung with the help of a labeled diagram.What are the factors affecting ventilation perfusion ratio?(June 2009).
4.HPV(June 2005)(June 2009). [Pg 1054-Barasch 6th ed,Pg 29-RACE 2009]
5.Describe the metabolic functions of the lung(Dec 2009).
6.What are the major causes of hypoxemia?What is HPV?How can GA worsen v/q mismatch(Dec 2010).
7.Define Fink effect,Diffusion hypoxia and second gas effect.How are they of importance to the anaesthetist?(Dec 2011).
8.Define and classify dead space ventilation.Define minute ventilation.Under what conditions is minute ventilation increased?(June 2012).
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16)Cardiac Physiology
1.Coronary circulation(June 1996)[Pg 752-Stoelting physio pharma]
2.Describe the arterial circulation of the heart with the aid of a diagram mentioning the unique features of coronary blood flow.Explain the Goldman’s cardiac risk index and its importance to the anaesthetist(June 2000).[Pg 21-RACE 2001,Pg 137-RACE 2003]
3.Factors affecting coronary circulation(June 2002).
4.Describe coronary circulation.Discuss factors affecting oxygen demand and supply to the myocardium(Dec 2010).
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17)Hepatic Physiology-Pathology
1.Plasma proteins and anaesthesia(Dec 1999).
2.Discuss synthetic functions of the liver.What is the  role of albumin in pharmacokinetics?(June 2011).
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18)Renal Physiology
1.Regulation of kidney in acid base balance(Dec 1995).
2.Discuss the countercurrent mechanism in the kidney.Discuss the renal protection strategies during preoperative period(Dec 2003).
3.Role of kidney in acid base balance(Dec 2004)(June 2006).
4.Define base excess.How do kidneys compensate for acid base   balance?(June 2011).[Pg 712 –Morgan 4th ed]
5.Describe the countercurrent mechanism in the kidney.Discuss the renal protection strategies during perioperative period(June 2012).
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                         SECTION III
19)Basic Principles of Pharmacology.
1.Continous infusion of drugs in anaesthesia(June 1994)
2.Interactions of pre-existing drug therapy with anaesthetic agents and techniques(June 1996).
-Drug interactions(June 2006).[Pg 7-RACE 2002,Pg 601-ISACON 2009]
3.Enzyme induction-describe the mechanism with routine anaesthesia examples(Dec 1996).
-Enzyme induction-its role in anaesthesia with examples(Dec 2004).
4.Transdermal administration of drugs(June 2008).
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20)Inhaled Anaesthetics-MOA
1.Minimum alveolar concentration(Dec 1996)
2.Sevoflurane(June 1997).[Pg 173-Morgan]
3.Sevoflurane Vs Desflurane(June 2000).[Pg 172-173-Morgan]
4.Isoflurane Vs.Sevoflurane(Dec 2003).
5.Nitrous oxide:current status(June 2008).[CEACCP 2005 vol 5 no.5,IJA 2007,Pg 433-ISACON 2009]
6. Compare and contrast Sevoflurane and isoflurane(Dec 2008)
7.Define minimum alveolar concentration.What are the factors affecting MAC?What is its significance in anaesthesia?(June 2009).[Pg 163-Morgan]
8.What is minimum alveolar concentration?Discuss the factors which effect the alveolar concentration of an inhalational agent(Dec 2010).
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21)Inhaled Anaesthetics-Uptake and Distribution
1.Concentration effect and second gas effect produced during uptake of inhalational agent(Dec 2007).[Pg 543-Miller]
2.Nitrous oxide-current status in anaesthesia practice(June 2011)
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22)Pulmonary Pharmacology
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23)CVS Pharmacology
1.CCB’s in surgical patients(June 1994).
2.Compare and contrast dopamine and dobutamine as an inotropic agent(Dec 2006).
3.Classify inotropes on the basis of their mechanism of actions.Compare dopamine and dobutamine(June 2009).
4.Classify antihypertensive drugs.Describe the management of hypertensive emergency(Dec 2009).[Pg 448-451-Morgan,Pg 301-ISACON 2009]
-Classify antihypertensive drugs.Describe the management of a hypertensive episode during anaesthesia(Dec 2010).
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24)Inhaled Anaesthetics-Metabolism and Distribution
1.Nephrotoxicity of halogenated anaesthetics(Dec1994)(June 1996).[Pg 69-Stoelting physio-pharma]
2.Merits and demerits of halothane and isoflurane(Dec 1995).
3.Hepatotoxicity of halothane(Dec 1997).[Pg 66-Stoelting]
4.Nephrotoxicity of fluorinated anaesthetics(Dec 2007).[Pg 650-Miller]
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25)Inhaled Anaesthetics-Delivery systems
CIRCUITS
1.Coaxial circuits(Dec 1998)(June 2002)[Pg 27 -RACE 2010]
2.Paediatric circuits(Dec 2000).[Pg 543-OAR]
3.Mapleson’s breathing system(June 2001)
4.Draw schematic diagrams of various  types of Mapleson’sbreathing circuits.Give the functional analysis,advantages and disadvantages of Bain circuit(June 2010)
5.Describe the functional analysis of Bain’s circuit.How will you check the  functional integrity of Bain’s circuit(June 2011).
VAPORIZERS
1.Types of plenum vaporizers(Dec 1995).
2.Charecteristics of ideal vaporizer(June 2004).
3.Classify vaporizers.Briefly mention the effects of altered barometric pressure on the performance of the vaporizers(June 2008).[Pg 15-RACE 2006]
4.Classify vaporizers.Discuss the effect of altered barometric pressure on the performance of vaporizers?(Dec 2010).[Pg 179-ISACON 2009]
5.What are the two major effects of pressure fluctuation in tha anaesthesia machine on vaporizer output?Describe the improvisations in designing to overcome this problem(June 2011)[Pg 128-Dorsch & Dorsch]
SAFETY FEATURES IN MODERN DAY ANAESTHESIA MACHINE
1.Safety features in a modern day anaesthesia machine(June 2009)(June 2010).[Pg no 47-Morgan 4th ed]
2.Describe briefly the safety features in modern anaesthesia machines.Discuss various features that prevent the delivery of hypoxic gas mixtures(Dec 2011)
3.Enumerate the safety features in a modern anaesthesia machine.Describe the hypoxia prevention safety devices(June 2012).
PRE-ANAESTHETIC MACHINE CHECK
1.Check out procedure to be followed routinely before using an anaesthesia machine and other monitoring equipment(June 2000).[Pg 88-Morgan]
2.Describe the pre anaesthetic check list for anaesthesia machine and equipment(Dec 2009).
3.Describe the anaesthesia machine check protocol prior to induction of anaesthesia(Dec 2010).
1.Evolution of rotameter(June 1999).
2.What is low flow anaesthesia?Discuss its advantages and disadvantages(Dec 2006)(June 2011).
3.Functional analysis of pressure reducing valve(June2007)[Pg 95-Wards]
4.Link 25 proportioning system(Dec 2007).[Pg 109-110-D &D]
5.Role of humidification in anaesthesia practice(Dec 2008).
6.What are the different types of carbondioxide absorbents?Describe their composition.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each(June 2012).
7.What is relative and absolute humidity?What are active and passive humidifiers?What are their advantages and disadvantages?(Dec 2012)
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26)IV Anaesthetics.
ADRENERGIC DRUGS
GENERAL
1.Adrenergic receptor antagonist and their uses(Dec 1994)
2.Name the adrenergic agonists and antagonists.Describe in detail their uses in anaesthesia practice(June 2005).
3.Adrenergic agonists(June 2006).
BETA BLOCKERS
1.Beta receptor blockade :-its relation in anaesthesia(June 1996).[Pg 32-OAR]
2.Perioperative beta blocker therapy(Dec 2007).[Pg 597-ISACON 2009]
3.Manifestation and treatment of beta adrenergic toxicity(June 1997).[Pg 330-SPP]
4.Effect of atenolol pretreatment on CVS,NMJ and IOP(June 2003).
ALPHA-2 AGONISTS
1.Clinical use of alpha 2 agonists in anaesthesia(Dec 2004).
->CLONIDINE
1.Clonidine in anaesthesia practice(June2007).
2.Clonidine in anaesthesia and ICU(June 2008).
3.Discuss PK and PD of clonidine and its role in clinical practice(June 2011).
->DEXMEDETOMIDINE
1.Dexmedetomidine:Clinical applications and complications(June 2008).
2.Dexmedetomidine(June 2010).
3.Discuss pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine.What is its role in clinical practice(June 2012).[Pg 96-RACE 2011,IJA 2011]
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
1.Calcium channel blockers drugs and anaesthesia(Dec 1995)
2.Calcium channel blockers and anaesthesia(Dec 1998).{CJA]
PROPOFOL
1.Propofol(June 1996)[Pg 154-Stoelting PP]
2.Compare Propofol with Midazolam(June 1999).
3.Propofol  as compared to Thiopentone(Dec 1999).
4.Disscuss the MOA,PD and PK of propofol(Dec 2011)
1.Impact of cancer therapy on anaesthetic management(Dec 1994)
2.Midazolam(1996-2000).
3.Untoward effects of intravenous sodium bicarbonate(Dec 1997).
4.Role of corticosteroids in the practice of anaesthesiology(June 2000).
5.Adenosine and its clinical uses(June 2002).
6.Mannitol in surgery/surgical uses of mannitol(June 2004).
7.PK of IV Thiopentone(June 2004).
8.Mention the commonly used immunosuppressive drugs and their interaction with anaesthetic agents(June 2007). [Pg 1257-Satish deshpande]
9.Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etomidate.Describe briefly its role in clinical practice(Dec 2010).
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27)Opoids.
1.What are the various routes of administration of morphine?Discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of epidural morphine(June 1996).[Pg 90-Stoelting physio-pharma]
2.Remifentanyl(June 1998).
-Remifentanyl in clinical practice(June 2001)
3.Narcotic antagonists(June 1998).[Pg 120-Stoelting physio-pharma]
4.Spinal opiate receptors(Dec 1999).
5.Pharmacology of fentanyl congenial(Dec 2000)
6.What are the various routes of administration of opoids?Discuss the merits and demerits of each.(Dec 2001).
8.Transdermal opoids(June 2003).
9.Acute pain relief in opoid dependant pain(June 2004).
10.Mention the intrathecal and epidural opoids in clinical practice and their complications(June 2006).
11.Various epidural narcotics for management of postoperative pain(Dec 2006)
12.Epidural opiates in anaesthesia practice(Dec 2007).[Pg 397-Morgan]
13.Classify opoids.Discuss the merits and demerits of epidural fentanyl and morphine(Dec 2011).
14.What are the various routes of administration of morphine?Discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of epidural morphine(June 2012).
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28)IV Drug Delivery Sytems .
1.TIVA(Dec 1996)(June 2000)(June 2001)(Dec 2001)(Dec 2003)(June 2006).[Pg 41-RACE 2009]
2.PCA(Dec 1996)(June 1998)(Dec 1998)(June 2003)(Dec 2004)(Dec 2007).[Pg 518,Aitkenhead][Pg 1487-Barasch]
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29)Pharmacology of Muscle Relaxants and Antagonism.
1.Interaction of depolarizing with NDMR’s(Dec 1995)
2.Hauffman’s degradation(Dec 1996).
3.Rocuronium(Dec 1998)(June 2001)(Dec 2001)
4.Pipecuronium(June 1995)(Dec 1996).[Pg 12-RACE 2006]
5.Elimination of Atracurium from the body(Dec 1999).{pg 231-Stoleting PP]
6.Enumerate the problems with muscle relaxants(Dec 2005).
7.Adverse effects of NMBA(June 2008).[Pg 213-Morgan 4th ed]
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30)Local Anaesthetics
LAST
1.Management of local anaesthetic toxicity(June 2000).[Pg 59 –ISACON 2008]
2.Treatment of systemic toxicity of LA drugs(June 2003).
3.Lipid emulsion for the treatment of local anaesthetic toxicity-mechanism and dosage(June 2008).
4.Role of lipid emulsions in local anaesthetic toxicity(June 2010).
5.Discuss the clinical manifestations of local anaesthetic toxicity and its management(June 2011).
6.Describe the toxicity of commonly used local anaesthetic agents and its management(June 2012)
1.Mechanism of action of local anaesthetic agents(June 1997).[Pg 181-Stoelting pp,Pg 265-Morgan]
2.Complication of local anaesthetics(June 1999).
3.Ropivacaine(June 2002).
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31)Nitric Oxide and Inhaled Pulmonary Vasodilators
1.Nitric oxide(Dec 1995)(June 2010).
2.Role of nitric oxide in ICU(Dec 1999).
3.Nitric oxide in clinical practice(June 2000).
4.Nitric oxide for management of pulmonary hypertension(Dec 1998).
5.Nitric oxide-current status(Dec 2008).
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32)Complementary and Alternative Therapy
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          SECTION IV-ANAESTHESIA MANAGEMENT
33)Risk of Anaesthesia(Anesthetic complications)
VAE
1.Air Embolism during anaesthesia.(June 1996).
2.Pathophysiology of VAE.Mention the methods of detection,prevention and treatment(1996-2000).
3.Embolisms during anaesthesia(Dec 1998).[Pg 388-Aitkenhead]
4.air embolism under anaesthesia(June 2002).
5.VAE(Dec  2003).
6.Air embolism:methods of detection and management(Dec 2006).
7.Discuss the pathophysiology.signs and symptoms and management of VAE(June 2009) .
8.How will you  diagnose VAE?Describe its pathophysiology and management(Dec 2009). 
9.Describe the causes and management of VAE(Dec 2010).
10.Enumerate the causes of air embolism in clinical practice.Discuss the clinical features and its management(Dec 2011).[Pg 638  Morgan 4th ed].
11.How do you diagnose and manage a case of VAE during spine surgery?(Dec 2012)
ARRYTHMIAS
1.Prevention and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias during GA(Dec 1995).
2.Cardiac arryhthmias during anaesthesia(Dec1996)
3.Discuss the etiology and management of SVT’s during surgical procedures(June 1998)/Management of  multifocal ventricular ectopics during anaesthesia(June 1998).
4.Discuss the etiology and management of various cardiac arrhythmias occurring during anaesthesia(Dec 2003)(Dec 2004).
5.Desribe the cardiac conduction system.How do you manage a patient with PSVT?(Dec 2010).
6.Describe the common arrhythmias encountered during pre-operative period.Discuss the therapeutic uses of Amiodarone(June 2011).
7.Discuss the etiology and management of Supra Ventricular arrhythmias during surgery under GA(June 2012)
BRONCHOSPASM
1.Intraoperative bronchospasm(Dec 1995)[Pg 111-RACE 2008]
2.Management of intraoperative bronchospasm(June 2007)[update in anaesthesia]
3.Bronchospasm during anaesthesia and  immediate postop period and its management(Dec 1999)[Pg 53-ISACON 2009]
4.Intraoperative bronchospasm(Dec 2004).
5.Discuss  the differential diagnosis of introperative bronchospasm.How will you manage it?(Dec 2011).
6.What is  the differential diagnosis of intraoperative bronchospasm?How will you manage it?(June 2012).
7.Describe the differential diagnosis of intra-operative bronchospasm.Write down its management(Dec 2012).

LARYNGOSPASM
1.Laryngospasm during anaesthesia(Dec 2007).[Yao,Ph 441-ISACON 2009]
2.Enumerate the causes and  differential diagnosis of post extubation laryngospasm.How will you manage it(Dec 2011)
ANAPHYLAXIS(ANAPHYLACTOID) REACTIONS
1.Clinical manifestations and management of anaphylactic reactions in anaesthesia practice(June 1995).
2.Hypersensitivity reaction in anaesthesia practice(Dec 1995).
3.Discuss the pathophysiology and management of anaphylactoid reactions in anaesthesia(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
4.Identification of anaphylaxis under GA and its management/Anaphylactoid reaction during anaesthesia(June 2003)(Dec 2003).
5.Recognition and management of anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia(Dec 2003).
6.Anaphylactic reaction on the operation table(Dec 2005).
7.Management of acute anaphylaxis(June 2008).
8.Clinical manifestations and management of a patient with acute anaphylaxis(June 2010).
9.Discuss clinical manifestations and management of acute anaphylaxis(Dec 2011).
10.Enumerate the agents implicated in allergic reactions during anaesthesia.How would you manage a patient with anaphylaxis during anaesthesia?(Dec 2012).
INFECTIONS
1.Infections related to anaesthesia practice(Dec 2001).[Pg 974-Morgan]
2.Transmission and precaution against HIV in hospital setting(June 1995).
.HIV and anaesthesia(June 2003).
.AIDS(June 2004).
.AIDS and the anaesthesiologist(June 2005).
3.Hepatitis B and anaesthesiologist(Dec 2000)(Dec 2004).[IJA 2004]
DELAYED RECOVERY
1.Possible causes of delayed recovery from GA(Dec 2004). [Pg 269-ISACON 2009]
2.What are the potential causes of delayed resumption of spontaneous recovery after abdominal surgery with general anaesthesia.Discuss the problem,its diagnosis and management(June 2005).[Pg 112-RACE 2002]
3.Discuss the causes of delayed recovery from anaesthesia and the management(June 2006).
4.Discuss the causes of delayed recovery following GA(Dec 2008).
DESATURATION
1.Management of a patient who is not maintaining oxygen saturation after an elective abdominal surgery(Dec 2005).
2.List the various causes of reduced arterial oxygen tension in the intraoperative period and outline their management(June 2010).
3.A 30 year old female ASA Grade 1 following exploratory laparotomy,is not maintaining oxygen saturation in the postop period.Discuss its causes and management(June 2011).
PMI
1.Prevention and treatment of intra-operative MI(June 2000).[pg 298-IJA 2007]
2.Discuss the diagnosis and management of MI in a patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery(Dec 2008)[Pg 287-302-IJA 2007]
HTN
1.Etiology and treatment of hypertension during surgery(June 1994).
2.Define perioperative hypertension.Describe the causes and management(Dec 2005).
3.What are the causes of intra-operative hypertension in a previously normotensive patient?Discus various modalities to manage it
4.Causes of intraoperative hypertension and discuss its management(Dec 2006).
HYPERCAPNIA
1.CO2 carriage in blood and effects of hypercapnia(June 1995)
2.What are the causes of hypercarbia during the intraoperative period.Discuss the effects and management(June 2006).
PULMONARY EDEMA
1.Treatment of acute pulmonary edema(Dec 1994).
2.Pulmonary edema in intraoperative and immediate postoperative period(June 2002).
BLOOD LOSS
1.Blood loss monitors(Dec 1995)                   
2.Discuss the management of massive blood loss(June 2007).[ATOTW 136]
3.Write an algorithm for the management of early haemorrhagic shock.What are the goals in early resuscitation during active bleeding?(Dec 2012)
HYPOTENSION
1.Aetiology and management of hypotension during anaesthesia(June 1996).
2.Hypotension during anaesthesia(Dec 1998).[ATOTW 148]
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
1.Occupational hazards  for/to the anaesthetist(June 1996)(June 2001)(Dec 2001)(Dec 2003)[CEACCP]
2.Describe in detail the occupational hazards to anaesthetists(Dec 2005).
1.Causes of perioperative seizures(Dec 1994)
2.Peripheral nerve injury under anaesthesia is preventable complication(Dec 2000).
3.Risk and management of pulmonary aspiration(Dec 2000)
4.Iatrogenic complications in anaesthesia(1996-2000)
5.Discuss the management of massive blood loss(June 2007).
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34)Preoperative Evaluation.
PAC
1.PAC clinic(June 1994).
2.Preoperative visits(Dec 1999).
3.ASA physical status classification for preoperative anaesthetic risk assessment(June 2010).
4.What are the goals of pre-anaesthetic check up?ASA risks grading and fasting guidelines(Dec 2011).[Pg 1002 Miller 7th ed]
SMOKING
1.Hazards of smoking relevant to anaesthetist(June 1997).
2.Discuss the assessment,preparation and problems of anaesthesia in a chronic smoker for cholecystectomy(Dec 1999).
3.Enumerate the effects of chronic smoking and the anaesthetic implications(Dec 2008).
4.Chronic smoking and  the anaesthesiologist(June 2009).[IJA 2009]
5.Describe the effects of smoking and its anaesthetic implications(Dec 2010).
LIVER DISEASE
1.Assessment of risk factors for patient with moderate to severe liver disease(Dec 2001).[RACE 2011]
2.Preoperative preparation and surgical risk assessment in a patient with cirrhosis of liver(June 2000).[Pg 1269-1271-Barasch]
3.Pre-anaesthetic evaluation and preparation of a patient with portal hypertension for lieno renal shunt(June 2007)
IHD
1.Evaluation of cardiac patient for non –cardiac surgery(June 2004).
2.Enumerate the RCRI.Draw the algorithm of cardiac evaluation for non-cardiac surgery as recommended in ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines on peri-operative CVS evaluation and care(June 2010).
3.How will you evaluate a 50 year old male patient with history of IHD presenting for major abdominal surgery?(Dec 2011).
VHD
1.Preoperative evaluation of a patient with VHD(Dec 2005).
2.Pre-operative evaluation and preparation of a apatient with TOF(June 2006).
1.Pre-operative evaluation of autonomic function(June 2002)(Dec 2004).
2.Pre-anaesthetic evaluation and preparation of patient for pheochromocytoma(Dec 2004).
3.Pre anaesthetic evaluation of a patient of MS for MTP and sterilization(Dec 2005).
4.Preoperative preparation of a diabetic patient with history of bleeding varices lino renal shunt operation(Dec 2005).
5.Pre.anaesthetic evaluation of a thyrotoxic patient scheduled for thyroidectomy(Dec 2005).
6.ASA physical status classification(Dec 2007).
7.Bedside PFT’s(June 2010).
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35)Anaesthetic Complications of Concurrent Disease
PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA:-
1.Discuss the pathophysiology and diagnosis of a case of pheochromocytoma.Give an account of preparation,monitoring and anaesthetic management of a 25 year old patient suffering from pheochromocytoma(June 1995)
2.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a 35 year old patient with pheochromocytoma scheduled for bilateral adrenalectomy(Dec 2006).
3.A young man is suffering from pheochromocytoma.Discuss the preoperative preparation and anesthetic management for removal of the tumor(June 1997).
4.What is pheochromocytoma?what are its clinical features?Discuss preoperative investigations,preparation and anaesthetic management of such a case for surgical removal(Dec 1998).[Pg 501,ISACON 2011]
5.Discuss pre anaesthetic assessment,preparation and management of a 16 year male kept for pheochromocytoma excision.How will you manage  post anaesthetic complications?(Dec 2000).
6.Discuss the pre anaesthetic preparation,anaesthetic golas and intraoperative management of a 30 year old female patient with diagnosis of pheochromocytoma scheduled for excision of adrenal tumor(June 2011).
IHD
CORONARY STENT
1.Guidelines for management of anaesthesia in a patient with coronary stent(June 2008).
2.Draw the algorithm for preoperative  management of a patient receiving antiplaelet therapy as recommended by ACC/AHA guidelines in perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and care.Describe the preoperative management of a patient with coronary stent(Dec 2009)[Pg 235-ISACON 2009]
3.Describe the anaesthetic considerations in patients having coronary artery stent(Dec 2010).
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CARDIAC PATIENT FOR NON CARDIAC SURGERY
1.Discuss the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of an emergency abdominal operation in a 60 year old man who had MI 6 weeks back(1996-2000).
2.Preoperative preparation and evaluation of a patient with history of exertional angina for surgery under general anaesthesia.(June 1996)
3.Discuss briefly the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of a 50 year old patient who had acute MI three months ago, and is scheduled for inguinal hernia repair(Dec 2006).
4.Discuss your anaesthetic management of strangulated inguinal hernia in a patient with a recent MI(June 1999).
5.Describe the arterial circulation of the heart with the aid of a diagram mentioning the unique features of coronary blood flow.Explain  the Goldman’s Cardiac risk Index and its importance to the anaesthetist(1996-2000).
6.Pathophysiology of CAD.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a patient with angina(June 2004).
7.Cardiac evaluation for non-cardiac surgery(June 2004).
8.Anaesthetic management of a case of essential hypertension scheduled for upper abdominal surgery(June 2005).
9.Classify cardiomyopathies.Describe management of a 60 year old male with dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for laparotomy(Dec 2010)
10.What is diastolic dysfunction?Discuss the evaluation and implications to the anaesthetists(Dec 2011).[Chapter 6-Stoelting co-existing]
11.Discuss the pre-operative evaluation of a patient with IHD.Discuss the perioperative monitoring for MI and its management(June2012).
12.What are the predictors of cardiac risk in cardiac patients undergoing non cardiac surgery?Describe briefly the anaesthetic consideration in a patient with coronary artery disease with ejection fraction of 40% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy(Dec 2012).
VHD
1.Clinical features of infective endocarditis,principle guidelines to use antibiotics as prophylaxis against,during surgery(June 2005).
2.Discuss the anaesthetic management of 20 year old male with RHD with MS for closed mitral valvotomy(June 2007).[Pg 3 –OAR,Pg 31-Stoelting]
3.Preop evaluation and anaesthetic management of a 30 year old patient with MS and AF scheduled for balloon angioplasty and valvoplasty(Dec 2007)[CEACCP vol 5 no.6 2005]
HTN
1.Define HTN.How will you evaluate and prepare preoperatively a 40 year old female patient scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy.Discuss the anaesthetic and postoperative management of such a case?(Dec 2000)

DM
1.Discuss pre and post anaesthetic management of acute abdomen in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes(Dec 1994)
2.Discuss the preoperative investigations,preparation and anaesthetic management of a 50 year old diabetic patient presenting for an exploratory laparotomy for a lump in the abdomen.(Dec 1999)
3.Management of DKA(Dec 1998).[Pg 803-Morgan,Pg 1300-Barasch]
4.Principles of management of DKA(June 2002).
5.DKA(June 2004).
-Preoperative management of DKA(June 1994)(Dec 2004).
6.Preoperative patient of a diabetic patient with history of bleeding varices linorenal shunt(Dec 2005).
7.Anaesthetic management of a case of DM scheduled for open cholecystectomy(Dec 2005).
8.Diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy for TAH(June 2006).
9.Discuss the anaesthetic management of an inadequately managed diabetes mellitus patient with ketoacidosis posted for BKA(June 2007).[Pg 1300 Barasch]
10.Describe the different methods used for perioperative control of blood sugar in diabetic patients undergoing major abdominal surgery with their advantages and disadvantages(Dec 2009).[Pg 782-Yao]
11.Describe the clinical manifestations of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.What are its implications?(Dec 2010).
THYROID
HYPOTHYROIDISM
1.A 50 year old woman with hypothyroidism is scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2008).
2.Describe the clinical features of hypothyroidism.Discuss the anaesthetic consideration in a hypothyroid patient scheduled for upper abdominal surgery(Dec 2011)

THYROID STORM
1.Etiopathology and management of thyroid crisis(Dec 1999)
2.Thyroid crisis(June 2002)
3.Thyroid storm(June 2004).
4.Manifestations and management of thyroid storm(June 2008)(June 2009).[Pg 1016-Morgan 4th ed]
5.Describe the manifestations and management of thyroid storm intraoperatively.Describe the management of such a case(Dec 2009).
1.Describe preop evaluation and preparation of a patient of thyrotoxicosis.Describe anaesthetic and postoperative management of such a case.(June 1996).[Pg 73-RACE 2004,Pg 64-ARC-06]
2.A 35 year old lady with huge thyroid mass presenting with thyrotoxicosis is posted for subtotal thyroidectomy.Discuss the preoperative preparation and anaesthetic management(Dec 2000).[Pg 1282-Barasch,Pg 807-Morgan]
3.Myxoedema coma(June 2002)(Dec 2004).
4.Causes of airway obstruction following thyroid surgery and its management(June 2003).
5.Thyrotoxic patient for subtotal thyroidectomy(June 2006).
6.Enumerate the NS of larynx.Enumerate the signs and symptoms of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy following total thyroidectomy(Dec 2009).
7.Discuss preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of a 40 year old hyperthyroid patient posted for total thyroidectomy.Enumerate postoperative complications(June 2012).
COPD
1.Discuss the current concepts in the management of a case of chronic obstructive airway disease in respiratory failure(1996-2000).
2.Anaesthetic management of a case of COAD(Dec 2001).
3.Describe in detail the anaesthetic management of patients with reactive airway disease(June 2001).
4.Discuss the anaesthetic management of patients with reactive airway disease(Dec 2001).
5.Intraoperative anaesthetic considerations in COPD patient scheduled for upper abdominal surgery(Dec 2005).
6.What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?How will you manage oxygenation and pain in post operative period of a case of COPD undergoing upper abdominal surgery?(Dec 2012)
CARCINOID TUMOR
1.Carcinoid tumor(June 2004). [Stoelting ]
2.A 30 year old woman is scheduled for removal of carcinoid tumor.Write the anaesthetic management(June 2008).[Pg 172-Oxford handbook of anaesthesia]
CUSHING’s SYNDROME
1.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a 25 years old female with cushing’s syndrome for bilateral adrenalectomy(June 2007).[Pg 395-Stoelting]
2.A 30 year old female with Cushing’s syndrome is scheduled for bilateral adrenalectomy.Describe the anaesthetic management(Dec 2009).
1.Anaesthetic problems in an amemic patient(Dec 1998).
2.A 60 years old man presents for elective parathyroidectomy.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2007)[Pg 398-Stoelting]
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36)Patient Positioning.
1.Positional hazards under anaesthesia(1996-2000)[Pg 965-Morgan]
2.Enumerate various positions in relation to anaesthesia and discuss in detail the problems associated with them(Dec 1996).[Pg 170-RACE 2003]
3.Describe the complications associated with sitting position during posterior fossa surgery and their management(Dec 2010).
4.Discuss the anaesthetic problems of surgery in prone position(June 2011).
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37)Neuromuscular Disorders and Malignant Hyperthermia
MG
1.MG versus Myaesthenic syndrome(June 1994)
2.What is myasthenia gravis?What are its clinical features?Discuss the preoperative investigations,preparation,anaesthetic management of such a case presenting for interval appendicectomy and management of the likely complications.(June 1998) [Pg 818-Morgan,P 69-RACE 2001,Pg 109-RACE 2005,RACE 2011]
3.Discuss pre-anaesthetic assessment,preparation,anaesthetic management and post operative complication in 20 year old female with myaesthenis gravis posted for thymectomy(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
4.Anaesthetic management of MG(June 2003)
5.MG and its anaesthetic management(Dec 2003).
6.Preoperative preparation of a case of MG scheduled for thymectomy(June 2005).
7.Myaesthenic syndrome(June 2006).
8.Discuss the anaesthetic management in a patient of MG scheduled for thymectomy(Dec 2006)
9.What are the clinical features of MG?Discuss perioperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of a case presenting for interval appendicectomy(June 2012).
10.What are the anaesthetic concerns in the management of a patient with myasthenia gravis scheduled for thoracoscopic thymectomy(Dec 2012).
MH
1.MH(Dec 1998)(Dec 2003)(June 2004).[Pg 945-Morgan]
2.Current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of MH(June 1999).
3.What is malignant hyperthermia?Discuss its clinical features and laboratory finding.Why is it important  for the anaesthetist to know about this syndrome?(June 2002).
4.Temperature regulation in adults,predisposing factors,diagnosis and management of MH(June 2005).
5.What are the diagnostic features that would lead to identify malignant hyperthermia during immediately after anaesthesia and state the guidelines of management?(Dec 2005).
6.Diagnosis and management of an acute attack of malignant hyperthermia(June 2006).
7.A 4 years old child weighing 15 kg undergoing strabismus surgery suddenly develops tachycardia,rigidity of extremeities and rise in temperature during anaesthesia.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2007).[Pg 945-Morgan]
8.Describe clinical presentation,pathophysiology and managemet of malignant hyperthermia(Dec 2010).
9.Describe the etiology,clinical features and treatment of malignanat hyperthermia(Dec 2012).
GBS
1.GBS(June 2004).
2.GBS-discuss briefly etiology,pathogenesis,symptomatology and management including anaesthesia(Dec 2007)[Stoelting 254}.
PARKINSON’s DISEASE
1.Pre-op evaluation and anaesthetic considerations of a patient with Parkinson’ disease(June 2008)(Dec 2008).[Pg 227-Stoelting,Pg 650 Morgan,IJA 2007,Pg 630-Barasch]
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38)Fundamental Principles of Monitoring and Instrumentation(PHYSICS related to anaesthesia)
VENTURI
1.Venturi principle and its clinical implication(June 1995) [Pg 181-Aitkenhead]
2.Application of venturi principle in anaesthesia practice(Dec 2000)
3.Venturi principle and its use in anaesthesia(June 1999).
4.Venturi principle and its application(Dec 2001)(Dec 2004).
5.venturi principle and its application in anaesthesia(June 2003)
6.Venturi principle and its importance to anaesthetist(Dec 2003).
7.What is venturi principle?Discuss its applications in anaesthesia practice(Dec 2006)
8.What is venturi principle?What are its applications in anaesthesia?(June 2009).
9.Desribe Bernoulli’s principle and its various applications in anaesthesia(June 2012).
MINIMUM MONITORING STANDARD
1.Minimum patient monitoring during anaesthesia(June 1995)(June 1998).[Pg 118-Morgan]
2.What is minimum monitoring standard?Describe the objectives and methods(Dec 2005).
3.Invasive intraop monitoring(June 2001)(Dec 2001)
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39)Monitoring Depth of Anaesthesia.
BIS
1.What is BIS monitoring?What are its clinical applications in anaesthesia practice?(Dec 2008).
2.BIS(June 2010).[Pg 99-ISACON 2009]
1.Minimum Alveolar Concentration(1996-2000).
2.Causes and prevention of awareness under anaesthesia(Dec 1995).
3.Awareness under anaesthesia(1996-2000)[Pg 66-RACE 2006,IJA 2009]
4.Awareness and wakefulness under anaesthesia(June 1999)(Dec 1994)[Pg 148-157-IJA 2009]
5.Awareness during anaesthesia(Dec 1998)(Dec 2000) .
6.assessment of intraop awareness(Dec 2005).
7.what do you mean by awareness during anaesthesia?Mention the monitors in use to measure the depth of anaesthesia(June 2006).
8.Discuss the pharmacological principles of measuring the depth of anaesthesia and techniques for monitoring the depth of anaesthesia(June 2002).
9.List and brief statement and effectiveness of each of the means available for detecting awareness during anaesthesia(June 2005).
10.What are the measures by which you can measure the depth of anaesthesia during the intra operative period?(June 2005).
11.Why is it important to measure the depth of anaesthesia?Briefly describe the methods used(Dec 2011).
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40)Cardiovascular Monitoring
IJV
1.Complications of cannulation of IJV.(Dec 1996)(Dec 2004).
2.Techniques and approaches to IJV cannulation(Dec 2007).
3.Describe the anatomy of IJV with the help of a diagram.Discuss any one approach for IJV cannulation(Dec 2011)
4.Enumerate various approaches for central venous cannulation.Describe the technique and complications of IJV cannulation(June 2012).
CARDIAC OUTPUT MONITORING
1.Non invasive cardiovascular monitoring(Dec 1994)
2.cardiac output management with thermodilution technique(June 1995).
3.what are the determinants of cardiac output and discuss various non-invasive methods of measurement of cardiac output(Dec 2006)
1.PAC(June 1998).
-Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring(June 2006).
2.CVP(June 1999)[Pg 131-Morgan 4th ed]
-CVP,its application in anaesthesia(Dec 1996)(Dec 2007).[Pg 1285-Miller]
-CVP monitoring and its implications(Dec 2008).[Pg 238-RACE 2007]
3.Jugular venous oximetry(June 2002).
4.Central venous cannulation(Dec 2003).
5.Methods of central  venous cannulation,uses,limitations and complications of CVP monitoring(June 2005).
6.Describe the indications,contraindications and complications of invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring.Describe the technique(Dec 2009).[Pg 123-Morgan]
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41)TEE
1.TEE(June 2001)(Dec 2001).[yao]
2.How is USG useful in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine and explain the usefulness of TEE during cardiac surgery(Dec 2005).[IJA 2007]
3.TEE in anaesthesia practice(June 2008).[RACE 2011]
4.Describe the role of intraoperative echocardiography in clinical anaesthesia(Dec 2009).
5.USG->principles and its uses in day to day practice of anaesthesia(June 2010).
6.Discuss the use of TEE in anaesthesia practice(June 2011)
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42)ECG
1.Modified bipolar standard limb lead systems and its usefulness for intraoperative monitoring(Dec 1995).
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43)ICD and Pacemakers
1.Discuss different types of pacemakers and briefly enumerate precautions to be taken during surgery with pacemaker(June 2007).
2.Enumerate the evidenced based indications for pacemaker insertion.Mention the general principles of anaesthetic management of a patient with pacemaker scheduled for surgery(Dec 2009).
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44)Respiratory Monitoring.
PULSE OXIMETER
1.Limitations of pulse oximeter(Dec 1995).
2.Pulse oximetry(Dec 2000).[Pg 140-Morgan]
3.Physical principles of pulse oximetry(June 2005).[Pg 1-ISACON 2009]
4.Pulse oximetry-principles and applications(Dec 2007).
CAPNOGRAPHY
1.Role of capnography during anaesthesia(June 1996).[Pg 45-RACE 2004]
2.capnography(Dec 1994)(June 2000)(Dec 2001)
3.Discuss principles of monitoring end tidal CO2(June 2007).
4.-What is capnography?Draw a neat labeled diagram of a normal capnograph and discuss clinical considerations of capnography(Etco2 monitoring)(June2012).

1.Factors influencing tissue oxygenation(1996-2000)**.[Pg 65-RACE 2010]
2.Respiratory monitoring in anaesthesia(Dec 2003).
3.Discuss various methods of oxygen monitoring in anaesthesia practice(June 2007).[Pg 65-RACE 2010]
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45)Renal Function Monitoring
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46)Neurologic Monitoring.
1.SSEP(June 1998)**.
2.Minimum monitoring for post spinal fusion in scoliosis(June 2003).
3.Methods of intracranial pressure monitoring,uses and complication of ICP monitoring(June 2005).
4.ICP monitoring and its applications(Dec 2007)[Pg 55-ISACON 2007,Pg 395-ISACON 2009]
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47)Neuromuscular Monitoring
1.Methods of monitoring neuromuscular junction function(Dec 1995).
2.Methods of monitoring of neuromuscular transmission during anaesthesia(Dec 2004).
3.Intraoperative neuromuscular monitoring(June 2007).
4.Compare and contrast TOF and Double burst(Dec 2008).
5.What are the factors affecting neuro-muscular blockage?Discuss various methods to monitor neuromuscular blockage(June 2009).[Pg 37-ISACON 2009]
6.Enumerate various techniques of monitoring neuromuscular blockade during anaesthesia.List the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques(June 2010).[Pg 127-RACE 2010]
7.Discuss various patterns of nerve stimulation in neuromuscular monitoring and their interpretation with the help of  diagrams(June 2011).
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48)Temperature Regulation & Monitoring
1.Discuss the regulation of body temperature.How will you prevent hypothermia in a neonate posted for major abdominal surgery(Dec 2002).
2.Describe in brief the sites and devices for temperature monitoring(Dec 2008).
3.Classify hypothermia.Describe the pathophysiological effects of hypothermia(June 2012)
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49)Perioperative Acid-Base Balance
1.Anion gap(Dec 2006).
2.Preanalytical consideration of ABG measurement(Dec 1999).                            
3.What are the major buffer systems in the body?Enumerate the causes,effects and management of metabolic acidosis(Dec 2009).[Pg 716-Morgan]
4.What is anion gap?Desribe the causes and management of metabolic acidosis from low cardiac output(Dec 2012).
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50)Airway Management in the Adult
AIRWAY ASSESSMENT
1.Airway assessment(June 2005).
2.List the bedside test available to predict the difficult intubations.Comment on their use(June 2005).
SGA
1.Supra Glottic Airway devices(Dec 2007). [Pg 85-RACE 2009,Pg 633-OAR]
2.I-gel Airway(June 2008)(June 2010).[IJA 2009]
3.Enumerate the different SGA’s.tabulate the differences between  Proseal LMA and I-gel airway(June 2011).
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LMA
1.Merits and demerits of LMA(June 1996).
2.LMA:various modifications(June2007).[IJA 2005]
DIFFICULT AIRWAY
TM ANKYLOSIS
1.Describe airway management of a patient of ankylosing spondylitis with severe restriction of neck movement posted for total hip replacement(Dec 1996) .
2.Discuss the preoperative assessment and the method of anaesthesia in patient with TM ankylosis for the release of ankylosis(Dec 2003).
3.A 20 year old is scheduled for release of TMJ ankylosis.Discuss the various methods to secure the airway(Dec 2008). -Describe briefly the difficult airway algorithm.How will you perform awake intubation in an adult with restricted mouth opening?(Dec 2011).[IJA 2011]
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1Assessment and management of difficult intubation(June 1995).
2.Evaluation of difficult airway(June 2002).
3.Difficult intubation/Predictive factors and intubation difficulty(Dec 2003).
4.Describe briefly the difficult airway algorithm.How will you perform awake intubation in an adult with restricted mouth opening?(Dec 2011)
ATTENTUATION OF LARYNGOSCOPIC RESPONSE
1.Attentuation of laryngoscopic reaction to intubation(Dec 2000) .
2.Discuss various methods to obtund intubation response to laryngoscopy and intubation(June 2007).[Pg 145-OAR]
3.Describe the occulocardiac reflex?Discuss measures to attenuate pressor response to laryngoscopy/intubation(June 2011).
VOCAL CORD PALSIES
1.Vocal cord palsies with the aid of diagrams of direct laryngoscopic view(Dec 2000).
2.Anatomy of larynx.Enumerate with diagrams the types of vocal cord palsies(June 2005).
3.Describe innervations of larynx.Brieflydiscuss various palsies following nerve injury(June 2011).[Pg 13 –Wylie 5th ed]

FOB
1.Modes of ventilation during bronchoscopy(Dec 1994).
2.Draw a labeled diagram of a flexible FOB and describe methods for its sterilization or high level disinfection(Dec 2007).
3.Describe the techniques for anaesthetizing the airway for awake fibreoptic laryngoscopy and intubation through nasal route in an adult with restricted mouth opening(Dec 2010).
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADULT AND PAEDIATRIC LARYNX
1.Describe the anatomy of larynx with difference in adult and children.What is importance of recurrent laryngeal nerve in anaesthesia practice(June 2002).
2.How does the paediatric airway differ from that of an adult?What are the implications for an anaesthesiologist(Dec 2009).[Pg 36-IJA 2004,Pg923-Morgan]
1.Double Lumen ETT(June 1996).
2.Airway management in an unconscious patient(June1998).
3.How will you anaesthetize the airway of a 40 year old man for awake intubation?(Dec 2006).
4.Discuss the management of CICV situation in the OT(Dec 2006).
5.Describe the anatomy of larynx.How would you anaesthetize the airway for awake intubation(June 2009).
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51)Spinal,Epidural and Caudal Anaesthesia.
ANTICOAGULANTS AND RA
1.Antothrombotic prophylaxis and neuraxial anaesthesia(June 2006).
2.Enumerate the guidelines for RA in a patient on anticoagulant therapy(Dec 2008).[Pg 299-Morgan 4th ed,Pg 106-RACE 2006]
3.Enumerate the guidelines for RA in a patient on antiplatelet therapy(June 2009).
4.Describe anaesthetic concerns for regional anaesthesia in a patient on anticoagulants(Dec 2010).
5.What are the recommendations for neuraxial anaesthesia in a patient on anticoagulant therapy?(Dec 2011)
PDPH
1.PDPH(June 1999).[IJA 2006,ATOTW-181,Pg 125 –RACE 2012}
2.What is PDPH?What are the factors affecting it?Describe the management of such a case(Dec 2009).
3.What are the differences between a subdural and subarachnoid block?Write the clinical features and management of PDPH(Dec 2011)
1.Complications of epidural anaesthesia(June 1995).
2.Pulmonary function changes following central neuraxial blockade(June 1999).[Pg 297-Morgan]
3.Continous subarachnoid block(Dec 1996).
4.IVRA(June 1995)(June 1997).(Dec 1998)(Dec 2003)[Pg 981-Barasch,Pg 311-SAARC 9th ]
5.Epidural analgesia for postop pain relief(Dec 1996).
6.Epidural pressure and various factors affecting the same(Dec 1998).
7.Indications and contraindications of regional anaesthesia(Dec  2001).
8.Effect of intrathecal neostigmine on spinal anaesthesia(June 2002).
9.CSE(June 2002).
10.Caudal block(June 2003).
11.Modified  CSE(June 2003).
12.Caudal epidural analgesia in anaesthesia practice(Dec 2004).
13.Complications of extradural anaesthesia(June 2006)(June 2007).[Pg 153-RACE 2007]
14.Anatomy of epidural space and methods of identification(Dec 2007)[Pg 24 and 33-Pramila bajaj]
15.Describe the boundaries of epidural space.Discuss five common complications of epidural block(Dec 2011)
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52)Nerve Blocks.
STELLATE GANGLION BLOCK
1.Indications and methods of stellate ganglion block(June 2002).
2.Stellate ganglion block-indications and complications(Dec 1995).
3.Enumerate the indications,contraindications,complications and method of establishing stellate ganglion block(Dec 2008).
4.Describe the anatomy of stellate ganglion.Discuss indications,techn iques and implications of stellate ganglion block(Dec 2010).
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK
1.Anatomy of brachial plexus and its importance to the anaesthetists(June 2002).
2.Discuss one method of brachial plexus block through supraclavicular approach and enumerate the complications associated with it(June 2007).[Pg 333-Morgan]
3.Anatomy of brachial plexus with the help of a diagram.Enumerate the various techniques of brachial plexus block(June 2010)
OPTHALMIC BLOCKS
1.Peribulbar block(Dec 1998).
2.Peribulbar block-indications,techniques and complications(June 2010).
3.Merits and demerits of retrobulbar vs peribulbar block(June 2002).
COELIAC PLEXUS BLOCK
1.Describe the anatomy of celiac plexus.Discuss the indications and methods to block celiac plexus(June 2009(Dec 2011).[Pg 385-Morgan 4th ed]
2.Illustrate the anatomy of celiac plexus with the help of a diagram.Describe the technique of celiac plexus block and its complications(Dec 2009).
ANKLE BLOCK
1.Innervation of foot and technique of performing ankle block(Dec 1995)
2.Describe the nerve supply of foot and the technique of ankle block for amputation of great toe(Dec 2006).
3.Describe the nerve innervations of the foot with diagram and dsicuss the local anaesthetic block at the ankle for the amputation of gangrenous toes in a patient(June 1999).[Pg 352-Morgan]
4.Describe the regional block for removal of infected corn foot(Dec 2010)
PARAVERTEBRAL BLOCK
1.Describe anatomy of paravertebral space and describe one method of establishing paravertebral block(June 2007).[Pg 354-Morgan]
2.Describe the anatomy of paravertebral space with diagram.Describe one method of establishing paravertebral block(June 2012)
1.`Three-in-one` block(Dec 2001).
2.Horner’s syndrome(June 2003).
3.Describe with the help of a  labeled diagram,the anatomy of lumbar plexus and describe the techniques of lumbar plexus block(June 2008).[Pg 343-Morgan 4th ed]
4.Describe the course of sciatic nerve and any one approach to block the nerve(June 2011).
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53)USG guidelines for RA
1.What principle  is used in USG?How is USG useful in anaesthesia?(June 2008).
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54)IV Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology.
CRYSTALLOID/COLLOID
1.Merits and demerits of crystalloids and colloids(June 1994)
2.Crystalloid and colloid(Dec 1999).[Pg 1705-Miller]
3.Crystalloid Vs Colloid(Dec 2003).
4.Discuss the different types of colloid solutions.Describe their advantages and disadvantages (June2012)
1. Plasma volume expansion(June 1999)(Dec 1999).
2.uses ,advantages and disadvantages of plasma expanders(June 1998).
3.Plasma expanders(Dec 2001).
4.Plasma volume expanders(June 2005).
5.Water and electrolyte disturbances and their pre anaesthetic correction in small gut obstruction(Dec 1996).
6.gelatin as spinal preloading(june 2002).
7.Comparitive evaluation of RL,Low molecular weight Dextran and 3.5%poly
8.Human Albumin(Dec 2003).
9.Third space loss-its importance to anaesthesiologist(Dec 2005).
10.Merits and demerits of various synthetic colloids(Dec 2006).
11.Discuss the role of plasma proteins in anaesthesia(June 2007).
12.Compare and contrast as IV fluid(Dec 2008).
Mg2+
1.Role of Magnesium in anaesthesia practice(June 2000).[FRCA/BJA]
2.What are the therapeutic uses of magnesium?How does it work?(Dec 2005)
3.Role of Magnesium in anaesthesia and ICU(Dec 2004)(June 2006)(June 2007).[ATOTW 90]
4.What are the physiological functions of magnesium?describe its therapeutic uses in anaesthesia(June 2012)
K+
1.Hypokalemia(Dec 1998)(June 2000).[Pg 677-Morgan]
2.Hypokalemia-definition,clinical manifestation and management(June 2010).
3.Define hypokalemia.What are the clinical manifestations of hypokalemia?How will you treat hypokalemia intraoperatively?(June 2011)
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1.Treatment of hyperkalemia(June 2002).
2.Causes ,diagnosis and treatment of hypo and hyperkalemia(June 2005)
3.Hyperkalemia(June 2006).
4.Define hyperkalemia.Discuss signs and symptoms and anaesthetic consideration(June 2009).[Pg 680-Morgan]
5.Enumerate the causes,clinical manifestations and management of hyperkalemia(Dec 2011).
6.Causes,diagnosis and treatment of hypo and hyperkalemia(June 2005).
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1.Discuss the ECG abnormalities due to various electrolyte imbalances(Dec 2008).[Pg 679-Morgan 4th ed]
SIADH
1.Water intoxication(June 1999).
2.How is the diagnosis of dilutional hyponatremia made?what is its significance in anaesthesia?(June2002).
3.What is SIADH?Describe the clinical features and management of SIADH(Dec 2011)
4.Describe the causes and management of acute dilutional hyponatremia in the immediate postoperative period(Dec 2012)
Na+
1.What are the manifestations of hyponatremia and how will you treat it?(Dec 2006).
2.Enumerate the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia.Describe the management in a patient with serum sodium level of 115 meq/L scheduled for knee replacement under RA(Dec 2009). [Pg 671-Morgan]
Ca2+
1.Discuss causes,clinical manifestations and treatment of hypercalcemia..What are the anaesthetic considerations?(June 2012)
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55)Transfusion Therapy
BLOOD COMPONENT THERAPY
1.Present trend of blood component therapy(June 2000)
2.Blood component therapy(Dec 1998)(June 2002)(June 2005)[Pg 161 ISACON 2008,Pg 1758-Miller]
3.Role of blood components in perioperative period (Dec 2007).
4.Enumerate the indications for transfusion of packed red cells,FFP,platelets and cryoprecipitates(June 2010)
COMPLICATIONS
1.Blood transfusion and related disease transmission(Dec 1995).
2.Complications and Sequelae of BT(June 1996)(Dec 2008)[Pg 700-Morgan 4th ed]
3 .Complications of BT(June 1997).
4.Management of mismatched BT(Dec 2003).
5.How will you diagnose mismatched BT intraoperatively?Describe its management(Dec 2009).
MASSIVE BLOOD TRANSFUSION
1.Massive blood transfusion(June 2003).
2.What is massive blood transfusion?What are the complications of massive blood transfusion?(June 2009).[Pg 702-Morgan 4th ed]
3.Define massive BT.Discuss the complications associated with massive blood transfusion(June 2011).
1.Storage lesions in blood(Dec 1995).
2.Recent trends of BT and blood products(1996-2000).[Pg 147-RACE 2011]
3.Clinical uses of blood(June 2002).
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56)Coagulation.
1.DIC(June 1995)(June 1998).
2.What is DIC?Enumerate its causes and management(June 2009)[Pg 403-barasch 6th ed]
3.Discuss the physiology of Hemostasis and its significance(June 2005).
4.What is TEG?Draw a labeled diagram to show a normal tracing.What are its implications?(Dec 2008).[Pg 394-Barasch 6th ed,Pg 338-Yao]
5.Describe various tests for monitoring peri-operative coagulation(June 2011).[Pg 392-Barasch 6th ed]
6.Briefly outline the evaluation and management of a patient with suspected perioperative coagulopathy(June 2012)
7.Describe the algorithm of the evaluation and initial therapy of a patient with suspected perioperative coagulopathy(Dec 2012).
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57)Autologous Transfusion,r VIIa and Bloodless Medicine.
AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSION
1.Autologous BT(June 1996)(June 1998)(June 1999)(June 2000)(Dec 2004)(Dec 2007).[ACNA-2005]
2.Auto transfusion(June 2004).
3.What is autologous BT?Describe the various techniques of autologous BT(Dec 2006) .[Pg 151-RACE 2011][Pg 1781-Miller]
4.Discuss criteria for patient selection,contraindications,advantages and disadvantages of autologous BT(June 2012).
BLOODLESS MEDICINE/BLOOD CONSERVATION STRATEGY
1.Perioperative blood conservation(Dec 2000)
2.What are the methods adopted by the anaesthetist to reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusions(June 2005).
3.Artificial blood/synthetic oxygen carrying substances(June 2006).
4.Write the blood conservation strategies in a 20 year old female scheduled for excision of angiofibroma of nose(June 2008).[Pg 65-RACE 2009]
5.Different techniques of reducing the need of allogenic blood transfusion(June 2010)
RECOMBINANT FACTOR VIIa
1.Recombinant factor VIIa(Dec 2006).
2.What is recombinant Factor VIIa?Describe the clinical usage of it(Dec 2010).
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SECTION V-ADULT SUBSPECIALITY MANAGEMENT
58)Anaesthesia for Treatment of Chronic Pain.
 WHO  STEP LADDER PATTERN FOR PAIN RELIEF
1.WHO regimen of chronic pain management(June 1997).[Pg 26-RACE 2005]
2.The WHO three step ladder pattern for pain relief in advanced cancer(Dec 1997)(Dec 2001).
1.Role of anaesthesiologist  in managing shoulder dystrophy syndrome(Dec 1994).
2.Trigeminal neuralgia,clinical features and management(Dec 1996).[Pg 375 and 408-Morgan]
3.Management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy(June 1997).[Pg 406-Morgan]
4.Anaesthetists role in pain and palliative care(Dec 2005).
5.Phantom limb pain(June 2006).
6.Pain management options in a patient with intractable pain due to carcinoma  of head of pancreas(Dec 2007)(June 2011).[Pg 297-RACE 2010]
7.Define  and classify chronic pain.Describe the methods of treatment of CRPS in left upper limb in a 20 year old male patient(Dec 2009).
8.Explain the term CRPS?What are the types of CRPS?Describe its clinical features and options for treatment(June 2012).
9.What is IASP(international association for study of pain) definition of pain?How do you classify pain?Briefly describe the interdisciplinary management of chronic pain.(Dec 2012).
10.What is hospice?When should you beging hospice care?how does hospice serve patients and families?(Dec 2012)
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59)Anaesthesia for Thoracic Surgery
OLV
1.One lung anaesthesia(June 1995).
2.Problems and management of one lung anaesthesia(June 1997).
3.One lung anaesthesia-problems and management(Dec 2004).
 4.What are the indications for OLV?Discuss the ventilatory management during one lung anaesthesia(Dec 2006). [Pg 589-Morgan 4th ed]
5.What are the indications of OLV?What are the methods of lung separation?Discuss the problems involved(June 2009).
PNEUMONECTOMY
1.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a patient posted for pneumonectomy Ca Right Bronchus-preparation and management(June 2004).
2.Discuss the pre-operative evaluation and preparation of a 55 year old male with bronchiectasis scheduled for right lower lobe excision(Dec 2010).
3.How would you evaluate and prepare a patient with chronic bronchiectasis scheduled for pneumonectomy?Briefly enumerate the postoperative complications(June 2012).

ESOPHAGECTOMY
1.Preoperative assessment,preparation specific to thoraco abdominal  esophagectomy.Describe your anaesthetic problem during operation(June 2005). [Pg 379-OHA],[Pg 609-Morgan]
2.A 68 year old patient with carcinoma esophagus is scheduled for transthoracic esophagectomy.Outline the preoperative evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic management(June 2010)
3.A 68 year old male with carcinoma esophagus is posted for total esophagectomy and gastric pull up.Describe the preoperative preparation,evaluation and anaesthetic management(June 2011).

PFT’s
1.Relevance of PFT’s(Dec 2000).[Pg 153-RACE 2009]
2.Describe with diagram the flow volume loops in:
(a)Healthy adult
(b)Patient with restrictive lung disease
(c)Patient with obstructive lung disease(June 2009).[Pg 8-Yao]
3.Draw a diagram to show various lung volumes and capacities.Describe the spirometry features of patients with obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorder(Dec 2010)

1.Anaesthesia for drainage of empyema thoracis(June 2000).[Pg 372-OHA]
2.Broncho-pleural fistula(June 2002).
3.Anaesthetic consideration for patient with BPF for repair(Dec 2005).
4.Hydropneumothorax(June 2003).
5.Write the indications of mediastinoscopy?Write the anaesthetic implications of mediastinoscopy(June 2008).[CEACCP 2007][Morgan 607]
6.A 40 year old male with emphysematous bullae in right lung is scheduled for thoracoscopic excision of bulla(VATS).Describe the anaesthetic management(Dec 2009).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------60)Anaesthesia for cardiac surgery
CPB
1.Myocardial preservation(June 1994)(June 2004)
2.Myocardial protection during CPB(Dec 1997).[Pg 1089-Barasch]
3.Anticoagulation and CPB(Dec 2007).[Pg 1088-Barasch]
4.Cardioplegia and its role in cardiac anaesthesia practice(Dec 2007).[Pg 439-Satish deshpande]
5.Discuss the various criteria required before weaning a patient from CPB(June 2011).
6.Describe the commonly encountered problems following CPB in the post-bypass period(Dec 2012).
OPCAB
1.Discuss advantages and disadvantages of OPCAB(Dec 2006)
2.Enumerate the indications of OPCAB.Describe the technique,advantages and disadvantages(Dec 2009).[Pg 177-RACE 2009]
1.Discuss anaesthetic management of 20 years old male with RHD with MS for closed mitral valvotomy(June 2007).
2.Preop evaluation and anaestheitc management of a 30 year old patient with MS and AF scheduled for balloon angioplasty and valvoplasty(Dec 2007).
3.Enumerate the circulatory assist device.What are the indications,contraindications and complications of IABP?(Dec 2010).
-Describe the mechanism by which IABP augments coronary perfusion.What are the indications and contraindications for the use of IABP?(Dec 2012)
CARDIAC TRANSPLANT
1.Preop anaesthetic implications in a patient with transplanted heart posted for incidental surgery(Dec 2007).[Pg 22-Stoelting]
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61)Anaesthesia for Correction of Cardiac Arrythmias(pacemakers)
1.Specific problems and their prevention during anaesthesia in a patient with artificial pacemaker(Dec 2000).[RACE 2008,Pg 437-RACE 2009]
2.Pacemakers(June 2002).
3.What are the indications for elective cardioversion?How do you prepare and perform this procedure?(Dec 2006).
4.Discuss different types of pacemakers and briefly enumerate precautions to be taken durin surgery in a patient with pacemaker(June 2007)[Pg 74-OAR]
5.Describe the cardiac conduction system.How do you manage a patient with PSVT?(Dec 2009).
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62)Anaesthesia for Vascular Surgery.
1.Role of anaesthetist in a case of TAO(June 2002).
2.Describe the anaesthetic management in a patient with Abdominal Aortic dissection scheduled for aortic bypass graft(Dec 2009).[Pg 226-RACE 2010]
3.Discuss hemodynamic and metabolic changes during aortic clamping and cross clamping.Describe the renal protective measures during aortic clamping(June 2011).
4.Describe the preoperative evaluation,anaesthetic management and intra operative monitoring of a patient scheduled for carotid endarterectomy(Dec 2012).
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63)Anesthesia for Neurosurgery.
POSTERIOR  CRANIAL  FOSSA SURGERY
1.A 40 year old male had pulse 45/min amd BP 190/110 mmHg,diagnosed case of tumor mass in the posterior fossa.How will you prepare and manage the case for removal of tumor(June 2004)
2.A 20 year old female with mass in posterior cranial fossa is scheduled for craniotomy.Describe the anaesthetic management(Dec 2009).[Pg 205-RACE 2011]
3.Describe the anaesthetic considerations for excision of a mass in the posterior cranial fossa in a 20 year old patient(Dec 2011)
1.Discuss the regulation of ICT and methods available for reducing it under anaesthesia(Dec 1994)..
2.Describe anaesthetic and postoperative management of a patient undergoing intra-cranial aneurysm surgery(Dec 1996).[Pg 385-ISACON 2009]
3.Hydrocephalus and its various methods of management(June 2002).
4.what is cerebral protection?explain the methods adopted in clinical practice for cerebral protection(June 2005)
5.Discuss the perioperative management of cerebral AVM(Dec 2005)
6.Anaesthetic management of a case of pituatory adenoma for transphenoidal hypophysectomy.(June 2006)..
7.Intraoperative problems of neurosurgical procedures under anaesthesia in sitting position(June2007).
8.A 25 years old man presents with marked features of acromegaly and is posted for transphenoidal hypophysectomy.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2007).[EORCAPS-2011]
9.Discuss the regulation of ICP.Describe the methods available for reducing it under anaesthesia(June 2012)
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64)Anaesthesia for Bariartric Surgery.
1.Morbid obesity-its anaesthetic implication(Dec 1994).
2.Discuss the anaesthetic techniques and postoperative problems in ana obese patient for large hernia of interior abdominal wall(Dec 1996).
3.Define morbid obesity.Enumerate the changes that occur in the respiratory,cardiovascular and metabolic systems in obesity.A 40 year old patient with height 158 cms and weighing 150 ks is scheduled for pyelolithotomy.How will you evaluate this patient preoperatively?Discuss the problems involved and the anaesthetic management(June 2000).
4.Obesity:anaesthetic problems(1996-2000).
5.Describe obesity and problems related to this.How would you manage the anaesthesia and choice of anaesthetic agent(June 2003).
6..Morbid obesity-anaesthetic problems(Dec 2004).
7.Anaesthetic considerations in obesity(June 2005).
8.Anaesthetic problems in a patient with extreme  obesity(June 2006) (June 2007).
9.Discuss the perioperative problems in a patient with morbid obesity(Dec 2008).
10.Discuss the problems and their anaesthetic implications of a 40 year old morbidly obese patient scheduled for gastric banding(June 2009).
11.Define morbid obesity.Outline the intraoperative anaesthetic considerations in this patient scheduled for bariartric surgery(June 2010).
12.Define BMI.Classify obesity and discuss the anaesthetic considerations in a morbidly obese patients(Dec 2011).[Pg 289-OAR]
13.Discuss the preoperative evaluation of a 25 year old man with OSA acheduled for laparotomy.How would you prepare him for surgery(June 2012)[Pg 79-RACE 2012].
14.Describe briefly the intra operative considerations for bariartric surgery.(Dec 2012)
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65)Anaesthesia for Renal and GUT
1.Describe the anaesthetic  assessment and management of a 70 year old patient posted for TURP.What are the possible complications and how will you treat them?(Dec 1995).
2.TURP syndrome(Dec 2000).[Pg 359-RACE 2012]
3.Anaesthetic management of 80 years old male kept for TURP(Dec 2001).
4.Anaesthetic considerations of a patient on pacemaker for TURP(Dec 2005)
5.What are the problems associated with anaesthesia for an elective surgery in a patient of chronic renal failure(Dec 2005).
6.Describe clinical presentation,pathophysiology and management of TURP syndrome(June 2011)
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66)Anaesthesia and Hepatobiliary System .
HEPATO RENAL SYNDROME
1.Hepatorenal syndrome in anaesthesia practice-etiology and management(June 1997).[Pg 144-OHA]
2.Hepatorenal shutdown-etiology and prevention(June 1999).
3.Discuss the patho-physiology of hepatorenal syndrome.What are the measures to prevent it?(June 2009).
4.Describe briefly the diagnosis,patholophysiology and treatment of heaptorenal syndrome in a case of advanced liver cirrhosis(Dec 2012)
LIENO -RENAL SHUNT
1.Discuss the anaesthetic problems in a patient undergoing lieno renal shunt(Dec 2004).[Pg  363-RACE 2011]
2.Pre anaesthetic evaluation and preparation of a patient with portal hypertension for leno renal shunt(June 2007)[IJA 2007]
3.Write preoperative evaluation and preparation of a patient with portal HTN scheduled for L-R shunt(June 2008).[Pg 42-RACE 2010,OAR-Pg 307]
4.Describe the preoperative evaluation and preparation of a 30 year old patient with portal hypertension scheduled for LR shunt(June 2009).
5.A 40 year old patient with portal hypertension is scheduled for lieno renal shunt.Outline the pre-operative evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic management of this patient(June 2010).{Pg 265-270-Stoelting]
1.Anaesthetic considerations in Chronic liver Failure(Dec 2005) .
2.A patient with obstructive jaundice(Serum bilirubin 20 mg%) is posted for Whipple’s procedure.Discuss preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of this case(Dec 2006).
3.Describe the risk stratification of a patient with deranged liver functions scheduled for partial liver resection(Dec 2009).
4.Enumerate the functions of liver.Discuss the anaesthetic implications in a patient with cirrhosis and ascites(Dec 2011)
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67)Anaesthesia for Organ Transplantation.
RENAL TRANSPLANT
1.How do you plan for renal transplant surgery?Draw plan for an operation theatre exclusively for renal transplant surgery(1996-2000).
2.Pre-operative evaluation of a case with CRF posted for renal transplant(Dec2002).
3.A 35 year old patient of chronic renal failure is scheduled for renal transplant.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2006).
4.What are the anaesthetic implications in a patient with a transplanted kidney posted for incidental elective surgery(Dec 2008).[Pg 2166-Miller]
5.Discuss the preoperative evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic management of a patient with transplanted kidney presenting for incidental elective surgery(June 2011).
LIVER TRANSPLANT
1.Anaesthetic problems of liver transplantation surgery(June 2005).
HEART TRANSPLANT
1.A patient who has undergone heart transplant requires non cardiac surgery.What precautions must be undertaken  by an anaesthetic for surgery(Dec 2005).
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68)Anaesthesia for Laparoscopic Surgery.
1.Problems of laparoscopic surgery and monitoring techniques used during the procedure(1996-2000).
2.Describe physiological changes associated with pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy(June 2009).[Pg 69-ISACON 2008]
3.Discuss the physiological changes due to pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic abdominal surgery.List the intra-operative complications(June 2011).
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69)Anaesthesia for OBG
I.PIH
HELLP  SYNDROME
1.Diagnosis and management of HELLP syndrome(June 1996).
2.HELLP syndrome(Dec 2004)(June 2006).
3.management of HELLP syndrome(June 2007).
4.HELLP syndrome:role of anaesthesiologist(June 2010)
****************************************************************************
1.Define pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.discuss the pathophysiology.Formulate,with reasons the anaesthetic technique for such a patient posted for CS(Dec  1995).[Pg 375-RACE 2011]
2.Describe the problems,complications and anesthetic management of CS in a patient with pre-eclamptic toxemia(Dec 1996).[Pg 273-ISACON 2008]
3.Discuss the pathophysiological changes in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.Discuss your choice of anaesthetic technique for such a patient for emergency CS.(1996-2000)[Pg 175-ISACON 2010]
4.A 25 years primi gravid in 34 weeks of pregnancy with PIH presented with a BP of 200/110 mmHg for an elective LSCS.Discuss the problems involved and the anaesthetic management(June 2000)
5.Mg SO4 therapy(Dec 2000).[Pg 387-RACE 2011,Pg 142-OAR]
 6.A 35 weeks pregnant pt with BP of 200/100 mmHg,edema and albuminuria is to be prepared for elective CS.Discuss preparation and preferred anaesthesia technique(regional or general)(Dec 2003)
7.PIH-role of anaesthesiologist(June 2007).
8.Anaesthetic management of patient with severe pre eclampsia for CS(June 2008).
9.Discuss the perioperative evaluation and management of a 30 year old primi admitted at 36 weeks of pregnancy with eclampsia presenting for emergency LSCS(June 2009).
10.Describe the anaesthetic management of a patient with PIH scheduled for CS(Dec 2009).[Pg 128-OAR]
11.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a full term prinigravida with severe pre eclampsia,scheduled for emergency CS(June 2011).[Pg 375-RACE 2011]
II.NON OBSTETRIC SURGERY DURING PREGNANCY
1.A female patient aged 32,with 5 months amenorrhoea suffered from Koch’s mid dorsal spine developed paraplegia.She is scheduled for anterolateral decompression surgery.Discuss pre-operative preparation,anaesthetic management and postoperative care(Dec 1996).
2.Anaesthetic management of emergency appendicectomy in a 16 weeks pregnant patient(June 2005).
3.Anaesthesia for a pregnant woman for non-obstetric surgery(Dec 2005).
4.Laparoscopic surgery in a pregnant patient(June 2006).
5.Outline the anaesthetic management of a female with 28 weeks pregnancy scheduled for emergency appendicectomy(June 2010)[RACE 2003,ISACON 2007]
6.Describe the physiological changes of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in pregnancy.Discuss the anaesthetic considerations and management of pregnant patient undergoing non-obstetric surgery during first trimester(Dec 2011)
III.ANAESTHESIA FOR CS
Mendelson’s syndrome
1.Discuss the pathogenesis,clinical features and management of mendelson’s syndrome(June 1996).[Pg 286-Morgan,Pg 1223-Barasch]
2.Aspiration prophylaxis in obstetrics(Dec 1999).
3.Management of Mendelson’s syndrome(Dec 2000).
4.What is Mendelson’s syndrome?Enumerate acid aspiration prophylaxis in a patient scheduled for emergency CS(June 2010).
***********************************************************************
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGE SDUE TO PREGNANCY
1.Describe physiological changes occurring during pregnancy and clinical implications to the anaesthesiologist(Dec 2001).[Pg 63-ARC-05]
2.Supine hypotension syndrome (June 2000)(Dec 2004).
3.Techniques to prevent hypotension after SA in CS(Dec 2007).
4.What are the objectives of premedication in a patient scheduled for elective CS?Describe the drugs used with their doses and rationale(June 2012)
IV.PREGNANCY AND CO-EXISTING DISEASE
1.A patient of COA is scheduled for CS.Discuss the preoperative preparation,anaesthetic management and postoperative care of the patient(Dec 1999).
2.Medical diseases and obstetrics(June 2003)
3.Problems and management of pregnant patient with dilated cardiomyopathy on treatment for emergency LSCS(June 2005).
4.Pre-anaesthetic evaluation of a patient of MS for MTP and sterilization(Dec 2005).
5.Discuss the pre operative evaluation and management of a 30 year old female patient who underwent mitral valve replacement 6 months ago and is now scheduled for MTP with laparoscopic sterilisation(Dec 2006).
6.Enumerate the perioperative problems and anaesthetic management of a 28 year old patient with MS for elective CS(Dec 2008).[IJA 2010-issue 5 –review article]
7.A HIV positive patient is scheduled for elective CS.Describe the  precautions for the management of this patient(Dec 2009).
IV.LABOUR ANALGESIA
1.Describe the various regimens for painless labour(June 1994)
2.Modern trends in obstetric analgesia(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
3.Describe innervations of female genital tract with a diagram and discuss methods of producing painless labour(June 2006).
4.Discuss the physiological changes secondary to pain in labour.Describe the role of para-cervical and pudendal nerve blocks in obstetric analgesia(Dec 2011).
5.Draw a labeled diagram of  labor pain pathway.Describe method,advantages and disadvantages of preferred technique of labor analgesia(Dec 2012)
                                                    
V.GENERAL
1.Amniotic fluid embolism(Dec 1994).
2.Role of anaesthesiologist in an obstetric unit(Dec 2005).
3.Regional Vs GA in obstetric surgery(Dec 2005).
4.Medical aspect and obstetrics(Dec 2003).
5.Enumerate the physiological changes during pregnancy and their clinical implications(Dec 2008).[Pg 63-ARC 5,Pg 875-Morgan 4th ed]
6.What are the causes of obstetric haemorrhage?Describe its management including anaesthesia(Dec 2010).
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70)Anaesthesia for Orthopaedics.
TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT
1.A 60 year old women with RA is for THR.Discuss the anaesthetic  problems and management(June 1994)
2.An 80 year old male is posted for total hip replacement.Discuss the pre-operative evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic management of this case(June 2002).[Pg 205-ISACON 2009]
3.Anaesthetic problems of total hip replacement in elderly patients(Dec 2005).
4.Anaesthetic consideration of a patient for surgery for fracture neck of femur,one year after CABG(Dec 2005).
5.An 86 year old patient is scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of subtronchanteric fracture of femur.Discuss the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of this patient(Dec 2006).
6.Enumerate the perioperative problems and anaesthetic management in a 80 year old patient scheduled for THR(Dec 2008).
7.Describe the anaesthetic management of an 80 year old male scheduled for THR.Mention the methods of postop pain relief(Dec 2009).
8.What are the pre-operative considerations in total hip arthroplasty?What are the goals of its intra-operative management?(Dec 2010)
9.What are the causes of intra operative hypotension during total hip replacement?Outline the treatment strategies(Dec 2012)
SCOLIOSIS
1.Discuss the anaesthetic problems,preoperative preparation and anaesthetic management of a case posted for correction of kyphoscoliosis(June 1995).
2.Anaesthetic problems in scoliosis surgery(June 2006).
FAT EMBOLISM
1.Discuss in detail the etiology,pathophysiology,diagnosis and treatment of fat embolism syndrome(June 2002).
2.Describe pathophysiology,clinical features,diagnosis and management of fat embolism(Dec 2010).
1.RA technique for upper extremity surgery(Dec 1994)
2.What are the indications and contraindications for use of arterial tourniquet.What complication may arise from the use of such tourniquet(June 2005).
3.Problems encountered by anaesthetists during the orthopaedic operative procedures(June 2005).
4.Risk factors for venous thromboembolism and classify the current methods of prevention with examples(Dec 2005)
5.How will you diagnose DVT?Write the methods of prophylaxis and management(June 2008).[Pg 850-Morgan]
6.How do you diagnose DVT?Describe the predisposing factors and its management(Dec 2009).
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71)Anaesthesia for Geriartrics.
1.Ageing and organ function(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
2.Enumerate age related changes in CVS,RS,NS and renal systems in geriartric patient which can affect anaesthetic management.How do the changes in renal functions affect anaesthetic management?(Dec 2012)
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72)Anaesthesia for Trauma.
1.Role of anaesthetist in multiple trauma(Dec 2001).[Pg 113-ISACON 2007]
2.Post traumatic fat embolism(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
3.How will you do anaesthetic management in 10 years old child with multiple injuries?(June 2003).
4.Assessment of an adult who sustained multiple trauma of few hours duration(Dec 2004).
5.What are the factors that predispose trauma patients to increased anaesthetic risks?Briefly mention their management(Dec 2012).
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73)Anesthesia for Prehospital Emergency and Trauma Care.
GOLDEN HOUR
1.Golden hour(June 2002).
2.What do you mean by the golden hour in trauma?Discuss the role of anaesthetist in resuscitation of trauma patient(June 2006).[Pg 538-ISACON 2011,Pg 287-RACE 2012]
3.what do you mean by golden hour in trauma?Explain the role of anaesthetist in trauma management(June 2007).
TRIAGE
1.What is Triage?What are triage criteria in relation to trauma?(Dec 2008).
2.Importance of triage in mass casualty incident(June 2010).[Pg 2327-2328-Miller]
3.What do you mean by multi-casulaty triaging?Why is it important?How do you triage victims in the casualty following a mass disaster?(June 2011).
1.Pre-hospital trauma care(Dec 2001).
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74)Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents:The Role of the Anaesthesiologist.
1.Enumerate the classical biological warfare agents.Describe physical findings,pathogenesis and treatment of anthrax(Dec 2010).
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75)Anaesthesia for Eye.
PERFORATING  EYE  INJURY  IN  A  CHILD
1.Anaesthesia for perforating injury of the eye in a 3 year old child(Dec 1996).{Pg 833-Morgan]
2.A 4 year old child is scheduled for emergency repair of penetrating eye injury of the eye.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2006).
3.Describe the anaesthetic management in a 10 year old child scheduled for perforating eye injury repair(Dec 2009).
4.Describe the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of a four year old child with perforating eye injury scheduled for repair under GA(Dec 2012)
1.Anaesthesia for squint surgery(1996-2000).
3.Occulocardiac reflex(June 1995)(June 2001)(Dec 2001)(Dec 2006).
4.Anaesthesia for intraocular surgery(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
5.Describe the different anaesthesia techniques practiced for cataract surgery and their complications(June 2006).
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76)Anesthesia for ENT
POST- TONSILLECTOMY  BLEEDING
1.Post tonsillectomy bleeding(June 2002) .
2.Anaesthetic management of a case for post-tonsillectomy bleeding(June 2002)(June 2005)(June 2006).
3.Anaesthetic considerations and management of a child with post-tonsillectomy bleeding(Dec 2007).[Pg 174-RACE 2011]
4.An 8 years old child who underwent tonsillectomy 4 hours ago retuns to the operating table with bleeding from tonsillar site.Describe preparation,preoperative assessment and anaesthetic management of this case(Dec 2012)
1.Anaesthetic management of a child with retropharyngeal abscess presenting for surgical drainage(June 1995).
2.Problems of microlaryngeal surgery(Dec 1995).
3.Anaesthesia for total laryngectomy(June 1998).[Pg 2375-6-MILLER]
4.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a 70 year man with carcinoma larynx for total laryngectomy(June 2007)
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77)Anaesthesia for Robotic Surgery.
1.Anaesthetic problems in robotic surgery(June 2007).[Pg 2389-Miller]
2.Discuss the anaesthetic problems in robotic surgery(June 2012)
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78)Anaesthesia for Laser Surgery.
1.Problems during anaesthesia for laser surgery(June1996)[Pg 846-Morgan]
2.Anaesthesia for laser surgery of larynx(June 1997).[Pg 168-RACE 2011]
3.Anaesthetic management of laser surgery on tracheobronchisl tract(Dec 1999).
4.Anaesthetic problems in laser surgery(June 2002)(Dec 2004).
5.A 22 year old male patient with multiple papilloma of larynx is scheduled for laser excision.Describe the anaesthetic management(Dec 2009).
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79)Anaesthesia for DCS(AA).
MONITORED  ANAESTHESIA CARE
1.Monitored Anaesthesia Care(June 1997).**(Dec 2007).(June 1998).[Pg65-RACE 2008]
2.Monitored anaesthesia care in a 75 year old man with IHD for cataract surgery(June 2000).
3.Monitored anaesthesia care in 80 years old man with IHD  for cataract surgery(Dec 2004).[Pg 65-RACE 2008]
4.Define monitored anaesthesia care.Discuss its goals and techniques(Dec 2008).[Pg 814-Barasch 6th ed]
5.What is monitored anaesthesia care?Discuss the discharge criteria for a patient after day care surgery.(June 2009).
6.What is monitored anaesthesia care?Describe the technique in a 80 year old patient  with IHD scheduled for cataract surgery(Dec 2009).
7.What is monitored anaesthesia care?Describe minimum monitoring standards for a patient undergoing monitored anaesthesia care(Dec 2011).
8.Define monitored anaesthesia care.Discuss its goals and techniques(June 2012)[EORCAPS 2012]
DCS
1.Day care surgery clinics in India(Dec 1994).
2.Anaesthesia for DCS(June 1999)(June 2001)(Dec 2001)(June 2002)[IJA 2005]
3.Day Care anaesthesia(June 2000).
4.Discharge criteria in outpatient anaesthesia(Dec 1997).(June 2003)
5.Discharge criteria for day care surgery(Dec 2003)(Dec 2004)(Dec 2006).
6.Criteria for recovery from anaesthesia in day care surgery(June 1998).[Pg 1427-Barasch]
7.Criteria for selection of patients for ambulatory surgery(June 2003).
8.RA in day care surgery(June 2006)(June 2007).[Pg 2435-Miller]
9.Describe the criteria for selection of anaesthetic agents for use in DCS.Enumerate the agents of your choice with reasons(Dec 2009).
10.A 6 years old boy underwent adenoidectomy under GA as DCS.Enumerate the discharge criteria of this patient(June 2010).
11.What are the anaesthetic considerations for DCS?Discuss  the clinical criteria for recovery and discharge after day care surgery(June 2012)
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80)Anaesthesia at Remote Locations.
MRI
1.MRI and anaesthesia(June 2002).
2.MRI(June 2004).
3.What are the problems in monitoring an anaesthetized patient in MRI(Dec 2005).
4.Anaesthetic considerations for MRI(June 2006).
5.Anesthetic concerns for MRI(Dec 2008).
6.What are the limitations and hazards of providing anaesthesia in the MRI suite?Describe the anaesthetic management of a 6 months old child with hydrocephalus scheduled for MRI(Dec 2009)(Dec 2012).  
7.Describe the anaesthetic management in a patient scheduled for MRI(Dec 2010).
RD AND RT
1.Anaesthesia for RT(1996-2000).
2.Anaesthetic management of radio diagnostic procedures(June 2007).[Pg 2463-Miller,Pg 21-ISACON 2008]
ECT
1.Anaesthesia for ECT(June 2006).
2.Anaesthetic considerations for modified ECT(Dec 2007).
3.A 60 year old male with refractory depression is scheduled for ECT.Describe the anaesthetic management(Dec 2009).
4.Elective cardioversion(Dec 2007).[Pg 1232-Satish deshpande]
CT
1.Management of a 4 year old child scheduled foe CT barin using an iodine solution(Dec 2000).
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81)Clinical  Care in Extreme Environments at High and Low pressure in Space.
1.What are the problems with acute exposure to high altitude?Discuss briefly the anaesthetic considerations at high altitude(June 2011).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------82)Dental Anesthesia
1.Anaesthesia for multiple dental extractions in a child with TOF(Dec 1996).
2.Problems and role of anaesthetist in dental chair(Dec 1999).[Pg 872-Morgan]
3.Anaesthetic problems in dental chair(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
4.Problems of anaesthesia in dental chair(June 2005).
5.Discuss in brief the problems of adult patients with Down’s syndrome for multiple teeth extraction(June 2005).
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SECTION VI-PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA
83)RA in Children.
CAUDAL EPIDURAL IN PAEDIATRICS
1.Caudal epidural in paediatric patients(June 1994)
2.Caudal epidural analgesia in anaesthesia practice(Dec  2004)
3.What are the indications of caudal epidural in paediatric patient undergoing surgery?Describe the techniques and write its complications(June 2008). [Update in anaesthesia]
4.What are the indications of caudal epidural anaesthesia in paediatric patients undergoing surgery?Describe the technique and enumerate its complications(June 2009).
5.Discuss indications,techniques and complications of caudal epidural block in children(June 2012).
1.Postoperative analgesia in children(Dec 1999).
2.Discuss the various methods of postop pain relief in paediatrics(Dec 1998).[Pg 203-RACE 2012,IJA 2004]
3.Regional analgesia in children(1996-2000) .
4.Postop analgesia in infant for circumscision(June 1997).[Pg356-Morgan]
5.Postop analgesia in children for inguinal hernia(June 1998).
6.Assessment of pain in children(Dec 2001)
7.Role of regional anaesthesia in paediatric surgery(June 2002).
8.Spinal anaesthesia in children(June 2006).
9.Indications,techniques and complications of spinal anaesthesia in paediatric patients undergoing surgery(June 2007).[Update in anaesthesia]
10.What are the methods of pain assessment in  infants and children?Discuss the pharmacological management of acute pain in paediatric patients(Dec 2011).[Pg 1267 Wiley 7th ed,Pg 203-RACE 2012],Ija 2004
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84)Paediatric Anesthesia.
TEF
1.Anaesthetic management of  a 2 day old neonate for primary repair of TEF(June 1996).[Pg 2590-Miller]
2.Describe the anatomy and physiology of various types of TEF.Discuss the anaesthetic management(June 2003).[Pg 71-RACE 2005]
3.Pre-anaesthetic assessment and preparation of one day old neonate for TEF repair(June 2007).[Pg 941-Morgan]
4.Describe the anaesthetic management of a neonate scheduled for repair of TEF(Dec 2009).
5.Discuss the perioperative problems and anaesthetic management of a two days old child scheduled to undergo TEF repair(June 2011).
MENINGO-MYELOCOELE
1.Preoperative management of a neonate for meningomyelocoele surgery(June 1997).[Pg 206-Rebecca Jacob]
2.A neonate for repair of cervical meningo-myelocoele(Dec 2005)
HYDROCEPHALUS
1.Preoperative assessment and anaesthetic management of a 2 year old child of hydrocephalus posted for shunt procedure(Dec 2007).[Pg 603-Stoelting]
2.Discuss the perioperative problems and anaesthetic management of a one year old child with hydrocephalus scheduled for shunt procedure(June 2012).[EORCAPS 2011]
GASTROCHISIS
1.Discuss the problems,preoperative preparation and anaesthetic management of a neonate posted for repair of gastrochisis(Dec 2001).[Pg 26-ISACON 2008]
2.Management of a one day old neonate posted for correction of gastrochisis(June 2001).
FOREIGN BODY
1.A 4 year old boy has come im emergency with foreign body in right bronchus.How will u manage for bronchoscopy for such a patient(June 2004).
2.Anaesthetic management of a 2 year old child for therapeutic bronchoscopy following inhalation of foreign body 2 days ago child could not exhibit any sign of airway obstruction(Dec 2005)
3.A 2 year old child weighing 10kg is scheduled for removal of organic foreign body in right bronchus.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2007).[Pg 186-Rebecca Jacob]
4.A 2year old child is scheduled  for removal of organic body in the right bronchus.What is the anaesthetic management?(Dec 2008). [IJA 2007]
5.Discuss the pre-operative evaluation and anaesthetic management of a 2 year old child scheduled for removal of foreign body in bronchus(Dec 2011).
CDH
1.Anaesthetic problems of repair of CDH in a neonate(Dec 2004)[Pg 111 RACE 2006,Pg 941 –Morgan 4th ed]
2.Anaesthetic management of CDH(June 2007).[Pg 593-Stoelting]
3.Pre-operative evaluation and anaesthetic management of one day old child with CDH(June 2008)[Pg 111-RACE 2006]
4.Perioperative problems and anaesthetic management of a one day old child with diaphragmatic hernia(Dec 2008).
5.Describe pre-operative evaluation and anaesthetic management of one day old child scheduled for repair of CDH(June 2009).
6.A 2 day old child with CDH is scheduled for primary repair.Outline the pre-operative evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic considerations of this case(June 2010)
7.Describe the pathophysiology,clinical manifestations and anaesthetic management of CDH in a neonate(Dec 2011)[Pg 111-RACE 2012]
TEMPERATURE REGULATION
1.Discuss the regulation of body temperature.How will you prevent hypothermia in a neonate posted for major abdominal surgery(June 2002)
2.Temperature regulation in neonate and prevention of hypothermia in neonate during perioperative period(Dec 2004).
3.Heat loss during abdominal surgery in a newborn child(Dec 1996).

 INGUINAL HERNIA
1.10 months old baby for hernia repair-anaestehtic and postoperative pain management discuss(June 2005).
FLUID MANAGEMENT
1.Perioperative fluid requirement for a paediatric patient undergoing elective surgery(Dec 1995).
2.Recent advances in intra-operative paediatric fluid management(Dec 2001)[Pg 11-RACE 2011]
3.Perioperative fluid requirement in small paediatric patients(Dec 2005).
4.Outline the principles of perioperative fluid therapy in a 10 days old child scheduled for elective surgery(Dec 2006).
GENERAL
1.Anaesthetic implications of neonatal anaesthesia(June 2005).
2.Preoperative considerations in paediatric patients(June 2005).
3.Fasting guidelines for children.How does premedication inadults differ from that in children(Dec 2007)[Pg 400-401-RACE 2010]
4.Discuss the anaesthetic implications and perioperative management of a six month old child scheduled for excision of cystic hygroma(Dec 2011).[IJA VOL 55,Issue 6,Nov-Dec 2011]
5.Enumerate the major concerns for anaesthesiologist in hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn.Write down the anaesthetic management of such a case(Dec 2012).


85)Anesthesia for Paediatric Cardiac Surgery.
TOF
1.A ten year old child suffering from TOF is diagnosed to have brain abscess.outline the perioperative management(Dec 1998).
2.A child with TOF is posted for corrective surgery.Discuss the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of this case(June 2002).
3.Preopertaive evaluation and preparation of a patient of a patient with TOF(June 2006).
4.How will you evaluate a three year old child with systolic murmur scheduled for surgery?Briefly discuss the anaesthetic implications?(Dec 2012).
PDA
1.Classify CHD.Explain with diagrams the blood flow  before and after delivery in PDA(June 2005)[Pg 44-Stoelting]
2.Write anaesthetic management of a 3 year old child scheduled for PDA ligation(June 2008).[Pg 795-OHA][Pg 47-Stoelting]
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86)Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care.
1.Assessment of pain in children(June 2001).s briefly
2.Discuss briefly different modes used for neonatal ventilation(June 2007).[Pg 78-ISA APCON 2006]
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87)Fetal Anaesthesia.
1.Draw a neat labeled diagram of fetal circulation and delineate the difference from adult(June 1996)(Dec 2004).[Pg 733-Stoelting physio/pharma]
2.Anaesthetic implications of fetal surgery(Dec 2007).[IJA 2009,Pg 432-ISACON 2011,CEACCP 2008]
3.Draw a labeled diagram to illustrate the fetal circulation.What are the circulatory changes that occur at birth?(Dec 2008).[Pg 884-Morgan]
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SECTION VII-POSTOPERATIVE CARE
88)PACU.
POSTOP SHIVERING
1.Post-op shivering(June 2004).
2.Postoperative hypothermia its causes,prophylaxis and management(June 1995).
3.Causes and management of post anaesthetic shivering(Dec 2006)(June 2011).
4.Discuss pathophysiology and management of shivering in PACU(June 2008)(June 2009).
5.Post anaesthesia shivering-implications and management(June 2010)
1.APACHE score(1996-2000).
2.Oxygen therapy in the postoperative period(1996-2000).
3.Postoperative jaundice(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
4.Central anticholinergic syndrome in the postoperative period(Dec 2003).
5.Post-operative elective ventilation(Dec 2005).
6.Postoperative pulmonary complications(June 2006).
7.Causes and management of postoperative hypoxemia(Dec 2006).
-what are the factors leading to arterial hypoxemia in the PACU?Discuss the differential diagnosis(Dec 2012)
8.Planning of PACU(June 2008).[Pg 1002-Morgan 4th ed]
9.Describe the techniques of chest physiotherapy?What is its role in the post surgical period(June 2009).
10.What are the criteria for discharge from PACU?(Dec 2010).
11.What is postoperative jaundice?Describe its cause(Dec 2010)
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89)PONV.
1.Post anaesthetic vomiting(Dec 1996).
2.PONV for ophthalmology(Dec 2001).
3.Enumerate the risk factors for PONV.Discuss its management(Dec 2006)(Dec 2008).
4.Enumerate the risk factors for PONV.Discuss measures to prevent and its management(June 2009).[Pg 1005-Morgan 4th ed]
5.Describe the risk factors and predictors of PONV.Describe its management in the pre-operative period(Dec 2010).
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90)Acute Postoperative Pain.
PRE EMPTIVE ANALGESIA
1.Discuss the various methods of providing postoperative pain relief.What do you understand from the term pre-emptive analgesia(Dec 1995).
2.Pre-emptive analgesia(June 2002)(Dec 2004)(Dec 2005).
3.recent views on pre-emptive analgesia(June 2007).
4.Pre-emptive analgesia:current status(June 2008).
5.Current concepts in pre-emptive analgesia(June 2010)
1.Commonly used techniques and drugs for postoperative pain relief(Dec 1994)
2.Pain relief for fracture ribs(June 1995)
3.Acute pain management service(June 2006).
4.Outline the various modalities for management of postoperative pain following major abdominal surgery.Enumerate the differences between acute and chronic pain(June 2010).
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91)Postoperative IV Fluid Therapy.
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92)Cognitive Dysfunction and Other Longterm Complications of Surgery  and Anaesthesia.
1.Central anticholinergic syndrome in postoperative period(June 2003)
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93)Postoperative Visual Loss.
1.Enumerate causes of postoperative visual loss.Describe the pathophysiology and its management(Dec 2010).
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SECTION VII-CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
94)Overview.
POISONING
OP POISONING
1.Clinical manifestations and management of acute OP poisoning(Dec 1995)
2.Care of OP poisoning in ICU(Dec 1998).
3.Describe the in-hospital management of OP poisoning(June 2009).
4.What are the signs and symptoms of OP poisoning?Discuss it’s management(June 2011).[Pg 121-RACE 2011]
5.What are the clinical features of organophosphorous poisoning?How will you manage a patient of oragnophosphorous poisoning in ICU?(Dec 2012). 
***********************************************************************
CO POISONING
1.Discuss the pathophysiology and management of a case of carbon monoxide poisoning(Dec 2008).[Pg 1044 –Morgan 4th ed]   
2.Describe briefly pathophysiology,signs,symptoms,diagnosis and treatment of carbon dioxide poisoning(Dec 2011)[Pg 552-Stoelting]
***********************************************************************
1.Write clinical features,diagnosis and management of a case of paracetamol poisoning(June 2008).[Paul marino]
2.Methhemoglobinemia and anaesthetist(June 2008).
3.Discuss the signs and symptoms,pathophysiology and management of cyanide toxicity(June 2012)
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS
1.Nosocomial infections in the ICU(Dec 1994)
2.Control of nosocomial infections in postop and ICU(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
3.What are the common nosocomial infections in the ICU?Discuss the measures for prevention of VAP(June 2009)
1.The factors influencing tissue oxygenation(June 1999)(Dec 1999).
2.Discuss the management of a patient with snake bite(Dec 2006).
3.What are the determinants of cardiac output and discuss various non-invasive methods of measurement of cardiac output(Dec 2006)
4.APACHE score(Dec 1997)
5.A 65 year old patient,chronic cigarette smoker is admitted to emergency department with acute respiratory distress and altered sensorium.His ABG reveals Pao2 50 mmHg,Paco2 85 mmHg,pH-7.10.Discuss your plan of management(June 2009). 
6.What is mixed venous oxygen saturation? And its importance in critical care setup?How is it measured(Dec 2011).
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95)Critical Care Protocol.
I}MECHANICAL VENTILATION:-
a]WEANING
1.Weaning from prolonged ventilation(June 1995).
2.Protocol for weaning a patient from prolonged ventilator support(Dec 1995).
3.Weaning modes of ventilation(June 1997)(June 2001)(Dec 2001)(Dec 2003)[Pg 1036-Morgan]
4.Weaning criteria in a patient of COPD on ventilator(June 2000)
5.Discuss different modes of  weaning from ventilator(Dec 2006).
6.Criteria for weaning from prolonged ventilation(June 2008).
7.Enumerate the predictors of weaning from mechanical ventilation(June 2009).[IJA 2006]
8.Enumerate the predictors of weaning a patient on prolonged ventilatory support in the ICU(June 2010).
9.Describe the principles of weaning from mechanical ventilation(Dec 2010).
10.Discuss the various criteria for weaning a patient from prolonged mechanical ventilation(June 2012
b]MODES
1.Pressure support ventilation(June 2004)(Dec 1995).
2.Mandatory minute ventilation(Dec 1995).
3.Inverse ratio ventilation(Dec 1996).[Pg 112-Chang]
4.Pressure Controlled Ventilation(Dec 1998)[Pg 1033-Morgan]
5.Write briefly on newer modes of ventilation.Discuss each of these ventilatory modality with reference to an established case of ARDS.(June 2000)
6.Newer modes of ventilation(June 1996)(Dec 2004).
7.Pressure Support Ventilation(June 2004).
8.Non invasive ventilation(Dec 2008).
9.Permissive hypercapnia(June 2010).
c]COMPLICATION
1.Volutrauma(June 1998)
2.Long term ventilation and its complication(June 1998).
3.Oxygen toxicity(June 2004)(Dec 2004).
4.Ventilator associated pneumonia-what are the causes and preventive measures possible?(Dec 2004).
5.What are the common nosocomial infections in ICU?Discuss the measures for prevention of VAP(June 2009).
d]PEEP
1.PEEP and its application in anaesthesia(June 1999).[Pg 85-Chang}
2.Describe PEEP,its mechanism of action,uses and complications(June 2005).[Pg 1037-Morgan]
3.Compare and contrast PEEP and CPAP(Dec 2008).[Pg 1038-Morgan 4th ed]
4.What is PEEP?How does it improve arterial pO2?What are its disadvantages?(Dec 2011)
e]IPPV
1.Physiological changes associated with IPPV(Dec 1999).
2.Applied physiology of IPPV(Dec 2005).
f]ANALGESIA /SEDATION/PARALYSIS
1.Use of muscle relaxants in ICU(June 1998)(June 1999).[CJA]
2.Enumerate the role of sedation in ICU patients(June 2005)
3.The role of sedation in ICU patients(June 2005).
4.Enumerate the role of analgesics and sedation in patients on ventilator therapy in ICU(June 2009)[Pg 536-Rashmi dutta]

II}BURNS
1.Discuss the management of a case of 40% burns(June 1997).[Pg 49,RACE 2011]
2.Discuss the pathophysiology and management of inhalational injury(Dec 1998).
3.Management of an adult with smoke inhalational injury(Dec 2004)
4.Resuscitation of a patient with 60% deep burn injury(Dec 2000)[Pg 59-RACE 2007]
5.Anaesthesia for burnt patient(Dec 2001).[OAR-Pg 213]
6.Resuscitation of 60% burns in an adult patient(June 2006)[Pg 213,OAR]
7.Discuss the principles,assessment and methods of analgesia for pain relief in burns(June 2003).
8.Assessment and resuscitation of patient with severe burns(June 2009)[Pg 870-Morgan 4th ed]
9.Describe the initial assessment and resuscitation in a 25 year old female with massive burns evacuated from the site of fire(Dec 2009).
III}ARDS
1.Describe the pathogenesis and management of adult respiratory distress syndrome(June 1997).[Pg 477-anaesthesia and intensive care]
2.Describe the pathophysiology of ARDS.What are the diagnostic criteria(Dec 1997).[Ph 143-RACE 2012]
3.Discuss the pathophysiology of ARDS.Describe the current trends  in the management of ARDS(Dec 2000).
4.ALI(Dec 2001).[Pg 1042-Morgan]
-Recent advances in the management of  ALI(Dec 2004).
5.Etiopathology of ARDS(June 2002).
6.Describe the ventilatory management of ARDS(Dec 2005)(Dec 2010).[Pg 669-Satish Deshpande][Pg 1042-Morgan 4th ed]
7.Recent advances in the management of ALI and ARDS(June 2007).
8.Permissive hypercapnia(June 2008).
9.What is ARDS?Discuss the ventilator strategies in a patient of ARDS(Dec 2008)
IV}SHOCK/SEPSIS
1.Discuss the pathophysiology,preventive and corrective measures of irreversible shock(June 1998).[Pg 1051-Morgan]
2.Define MODS.How do you plan to manage such a case?(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
3.Septic shock(June 2004).
4.Role of vasopressors in septic shock(Dec 2004).
5.What are the criteria for diagnosis of SIRS?Discuss the principles of management in a patient of septic shock admitted in an ICU(Dec 2006).
6.Enumerate the symptoms of shock and discuss the methods used for assessment of systemic perfusion(June 2008).
7.Describe various components of surviving sepsis guidelines(Dec 2010).
-Briefly discuss the management of a patient with severe sepsis as per “surviving sepsis guidelines”(Dec 2012)
8.Define and classify shock.Discuss the recent guidelines for the management of septic shock(Dec 2011).
9.How would you assess a case of septic shock due to pancreatitis?Briefly discuss its management(June 2012)
V}TRACHEOSTOMY
1.Tracheostomy -techniques and complications(Dec 2003).
2.Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy(June 2008).[Pg 237-RACE 2009]
3.Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy:indications,techniques and complications(June 2009).[IJA 2008-52(1)]
4.Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy-various techniques and their advantages over conventional tracheostomy(June 2010).
5.Enumerate the indications of tracheostomy.Describe different techniques of performing percutaneous dilatational trachesotomy(Dec 2010).
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96)Respiratory Care.
1.Oxygen therapy(Dec 1997)(Dec 1999).[Pg 111-RACE 2009]
-Oxygen therapy in postop period(June 1998)[Pg 1-RACE 2002]
2.High  Frequency ventilation(Dec 2003).
3.Discuss methods of humidification(Dec 2006).
4.NIV:advantages,disadvantages and methods of administration(June 2007).[Pg 73-RACE 2009,Pg 315-ISACON 2009]
5.What is oxygen delivery?Classify oxygen delivery systems.Discuss the role of ventimask in oxygen therapy(Dec 2011).
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97)Neurocritical Care.
1.Resuscitation of head injury patient(Dec 1995).
2.GCS(June 1996)(June 2002)(Dec 2002)(Dec 2006).
3.Monitoring and control of raised ICP in head injury(June 1997) .[Pg 50-ISACON 2007]
4.Methods of decreasing increased ICP(June 2000).
5.Management of spinal injury(June 2001)(Dec 2001).
6.Regulation of intracranial tension(Dec 2001).[Pg 632-Morgan 4th ed][Pg 1024-Barasch 6th ed]
-Discuss the management of intracranial hypertension(June 2009)
7.Medical management of head injured patient(June 2005).
8.What is cerebral protection?Explain the methods adopted in clinical practice for cerebral protection(June 2005).
9.Describe the regulation of ICP and methods available for reducing the pressure under anaesthesia(June 2007).
10.What are the pathophysiological insults which exacerbate the primary brain injury following head trauma?How can these effects be reduced?(Dec 2010).
11.What are the indications for ICP monitoring in patients with head injury?describe the ICU management strategies of a patient with severe head injury?(Dec 2012).
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98)Nutrition and Metabolic Control.
1.TPN(Dec 1996)(June 1999)[Pg 244-RACE 2002,Pg 1058-Morgan 4th ed]
2.IV alimentation in ICU(June 1998).
3.Present day concept of IV alimentation(Dec 2000).
4.Principles of TPN(Dec 2001).
5.Indications and hazards of parenteral nutrition(Dec 2004).
6.Parenteral nutrition in critically ill patient(Dec 2006)
7.A 50 year old man with COPD is on ventilator in ICU.Plan his enteral feeding and discuss its advantages and disadvantages(June 2008).
8.Enteric feeding in the critically ill patient(Dec 2008).
-Enteral feeding in the critically ill patients-indications,techniques and complications(June 2010)
9.What are the goals of nutritional support in critically ill patients?Describe the daily requirements for proteins,lipids,carbohydrates for a patient with advanced sepsis admitted in the ICU(June 2011).
10.How will you calculate the energy requirements in an ICU patient?What are the advantages and disadvantages of parenteral versus enteral nutrition?(Dec 2012).
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99)RRT.
1.What are the problems related to chronic hemodialysis(June 2008).
2.What are the indications for RRT?List different modes of RRT.Discuss the role of CRRT in septic shock(Dec 2010).
3.Discuss indications and techniques of RRT.Discuss role of CRRT in septic shock(June 2012).
4.What are the indications for renal replacement therapy ?Describe its role in MODS(Dec 2012).
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100)CPR-BLS and ALS.
NEONATAL RESUSCITATION
1.Neonatal resuscitation in the labour room(June 1994).
2.Neonatal resuscitation(Dec 2001).
3.New guidelines for neonatal resuscitation(Dec 2007).[Pg 1164-Barasch,Pg 2697-Miller]
4.What are the recent guidelines for neonatal resuscitation(Dec 2008)
5.What are the new guidelines for ventilation and external cardiac compression for neonatal resuscitation?What are the drugs(with doses) used for neonatal resuscitation?(June 2011). [IJA 2010].
6.Write down the algorithm for resuscitation of a newborn(Dec 2012)
1.Discuss cardiopulmonary and brain resuscitation.What are the diagnostic criteria for brain death?(June 1995).
2.ALS(Dec 1997).                     
3.Discuss the current concepts and modified guidelines of Cardio Pulmonary brain Resuscitation(June 1999).[Pg 73-RACE 2011]
4.Describe the BLS measure in an adult, who has been brought into the emergency room of the hospital; in a state of cardiac arrest(June 1997).[Part 5-Adult BLS-CPR 2010]
5.CPR in pregnant women(June 2002).
-Resuscitation of term pregnant patient(June 2008).[Part 12.3-cardiac arrest in special situations-CPR 2010]
6.Defibrillation(Dec 2003)[Part 6-electrical therapies-CPR 2010].
7.Current concepts in CPR(Dec 2004).
8.Recent advances in CPR(Dec 2005)(June 2006).
9.Discuss the management of an unconscious young patient with history of drowning(June 2006). 
-Discuss resuscitation of near drowning patient as per modified CPR guidelines(June 2007).(Part 12.9-CPR 2010)
10.Airway devices recommended and used for CPR(June 2007) .[Part 7.1-CPR 2010]
11.Enumerate 5 H’s and 5 T’s as possible causes of cardiac arrest.What it the management of PEA in an unconscious patient?(Dec 2008).
12.Write the PEA algorithm as per the AHA guidelines(June 2010).
13.Enumerate the changes in the ACC/AHA guidelines on resuscitation(BLS &ACLS) for management of cardiac arrest in adult(June 2010)
14.Describe the physiology of circulation during closed chest compressions.Discuss the algorithm for BLS(Dec 2011)
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101)Brain Death.
1.Brain death(June 2000)(June 2004)(Dec 2007).
2.Describe the criteria and neurological test for brainstem death and preparing the patient for organ donation(June 2005).
3.Various clinical and confirmatory tests for brain death(Dec 2006).
4.Write in brief the criteria for determination of brain death and clinical tests for confirmation(Dec 2008).[Pg 567-ISACON 2009]
5.Criteria for brain death and the role of anaesthetist in organ harvesting(June 2010).
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SECTION VIII-ANCILLARY RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROBLEMS
102)OR Management.
1.OR pollution(Dec 1994)(June 1999).
2.Sterilization of anaesthesia equipment(June 1998).[Pg 304-ISACON  2007]
3.Disinfection(June 2002).
4.Pollution in anaesthesia(Dec 2003).
5.OT safety(Dec 2005).
6.What is scavenging in OT?What are the five basic parts of a scavenging system?What are the hazards of a scavenging system?(Dec 2012)
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103)Electrical Safety in the OR
1.Prevention of fire and explosion hazards in OT(June 2002).
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104)Environmental Safety including Chemical Dependancy.
1.Discuss the environmental hazards in the OT and discuss the measures for its prevention(Dec 2008)(June 2011)(June 2012).[www.acssurgery.com/acs/chapters/ch08.htm]
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105)Statistical Methods in Anaesthesia.
1.What do you understand by randomization and blinding in a clinical study?What is importance of p-value and power of study?(Dec 2010).
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CASE HISTORY
TURP+PACEMAKER
1.Discuss the pre-operative evaluation and anaestehtic management of an 80 year old patient with cardiac pacemaker for TURP(Dec 2011).
2.Outline the anaesthetic management of a 70 year old patient with permanent pacemaker scheduled for TURP(June 2010)
3.Anaesthetic management of an adult patient with permanent pacemaker posted for TURP(Dec 2004).
4.a patient on pacemaker for TURP(Dec 2005).
1.anaesthetic management of a case of essential hypertension scheduled for upper abdominal surgery(June 2005)
2.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a 60 year old patient for resection of carcinoma sigmoid colon with history of MI sustained 10 weeks ago(June 1995).
3.Preoperative evaluation and preparation and anaesthesia management of a known case of bronchial asthma posted for radical mastectomy(June 1995).
4.Describe the anaesthetic management and postoperative care in a patient with uncontrolled hypertension(BP-180/120 mmHg) for emergency laparotomy for perforated duodenal ulcer.(June1996).
5.A 45 years old man with uncontrolled DM and HTN is admitted with upper intestinal obstruction for emergency laparotomy.Discuss the preoperative evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic management of the case(June 1998).[Pg 69-RACE 2008]
6.A patient of coarctation of aorta is scheduled for CS.Discuss the preoperative preparation,anaesthetic management and post-operative care of the patient(1996-2000).
7.Anaesthetic management of a patient with suspected posterior fossa tumor with BP 180/90 mmHg,HR-45/mt and signs of raised ICT(June 2004).
8.A patient for surgery for fracture neck of femur,one year after  CABG(Dec 2005).
9.Diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy for abdominal hysterectomy(June 2006)
10.Intraoperative management of 40 years old male with hypertension and IHD for right pyelolithotomy(June 2007).
11.Discuss the anaesthetic management of a 20 year old male with achalasia cardia and bronchial asthma for laparoscopic cardiomyotomy(June 2007).
12.A 70 year old hypertensive man with CAD is scheduled for TURP.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2007).
13.A 40 year old man weighing 140 Kg has DM and HTN and is scheduled for gastric banding.Discuss the anaesthetic management(Dec 2007).
14.Preop evaluation and preparation of 36 years old asthmatic female scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy(June 2008).
15.Discuss anaesthetic management of 70 years old hypertensive with CAD scheduled for TURP(June 2009).
16.A 35  year old hypertensive patient with chronic cholecystitis is scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Outline the pre-operative  evaluation,preparation and anaesthetic management of this patient(June 2010).
17.Discuss the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of a 45 year old male with history of MI 3 months back and is scheduled to undergo exploratory laparotomy(June 2011).

18.Discuss the preoperative evaluation and anaesthetic management of 70 year old hypertensive patient for total laryngectomy(June 2012)

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